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Hooked on a feeling: affective anti-smoking messages are more effective than cognitive messages at changing implicit evaluations of smoking

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Abstract
Because implicit evaluations are thought to underlie many aspects of behavior, researchers have started looking for ways to change them. We examine whether and when persuasive messages alter strongly held implicit evaluations of smoking. In smokers, an affective anti-smoking message led to more negative implicit evaluations on four different implicit measures as compared to a cognitive anti-smoking message which seemed to backfire. Additional analyses suggested that the observed effects were mediated by the feelings and emotions raised by the messages. In non-smokers, both the affective and cognitive message engendered slightly more negative implicit evaluations. We conclude that persuasive messages change implicit evaluations in a way that depends on properties of the message and of the participant. Thus, our data open new avenues for research directed at tailoring persuasive messages to change implicit evaluations.
Keywords
EXPLICIT ATTITUDES, ASSOCIATION TEST, EXTRAPERSONAL ASSOCIATIONS, SELF-ESTEEM, PERSUASION, MALLEABILITY, METAANALYSIS, PREFERENCES, PREJUDICE, IAT

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MLA
Smith, Colin, and Jan De Houwer. “Hooked on a Feeling: Affective Anti-smoking Messages Are More Effective Than Cognitive Messages at Changing Implicit Evaluations of Smoking.” FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY 6 (2015): n. pag. Print.
APA
Smith, Colin, & De Houwer, J. (2015). Hooked on a feeling: affective anti-smoking messages are more effective than cognitive messages at changing implicit evaluations of smoking. FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY, 6.
Chicago author-date
Smith, Colin, and Jan De Houwer. 2015. “Hooked on a Feeling: Affective Anti-smoking Messages Are More Effective Than Cognitive Messages at Changing Implicit Evaluations of Smoking.” Frontiers in Psychology 6.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Smith, Colin, and Jan De Houwer. 2015. “Hooked on a Feeling: Affective Anti-smoking Messages Are More Effective Than Cognitive Messages at Changing Implicit Evaluations of Smoking.” Frontiers in Psychology 6.
Vancouver
1.
Smith C, De Houwer J. Hooked on a feeling: affective anti-smoking messages are more effective than cognitive messages at changing implicit evaluations of smoking. FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY. 2015;6.
IEEE
[1]
C. Smith and J. De Houwer, “Hooked on a feeling: affective anti-smoking messages are more effective than cognitive messages at changing implicit evaluations of smoking,” FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY, vol. 6, 2015.
@article{6956501,
  abstract     = {Because implicit evaluations are thought to underlie many aspects of behavior, researchers have started looking for ways to change them. We examine whether and when persuasive messages alter strongly held implicit evaluations of smoking. In smokers, an affective anti-smoking message led to more negative implicit evaluations on four different implicit measures as compared to a cognitive anti-smoking message which seemed to backfire. Additional analyses suggested that the observed effects were mediated by the feelings and emotions raised by the messages. In non-smokers, both the affective and cognitive message engendered slightly more negative implicit evaluations. We conclude that persuasive messages change implicit evaluations in a way that depends on properties of the message and of the participant. Thus, our data open new avenues for research directed at tailoring persuasive messages to change implicit evaluations.},
  articleno    = {1488},
  author       = {Smith, Colin and De Houwer, Jan},
  issn         = {1664-1078},
  journal      = {FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY},
  keywords     = {EXPLICIT ATTITUDES,ASSOCIATION TEST,EXTRAPERSONAL ASSOCIATIONS,SELF-ESTEEM,PERSUASION,MALLEABILITY,METAANALYSIS,PREFERENCES,PREJUDICE,IAT},
  language     = {eng},
  title        = {Hooked on a feeling: affective anti-smoking messages are more effective than cognitive messages at changing implicit evaluations of smoking},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01488},
  volume       = {6},
  year         = {2015},
}

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