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Understanding effects of subjectivity in measuring chord estimation accuracy

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Abstract
To assess the performance of an automatic chord estimation system, reference annotations are indispensable. However, owing to the complexity of music and the sometimes ambiguous harmonic structure of polyphonic music, chord annotations are inherently subjective, and as a result any derived accuracy estimates will be subjective as well. In this paper, we investigate the extent of the confounding effect of subjectivity in reference annotations. Our results show that this effect is important, and they affect different types of automatic chord estimation systems in different ways. Our results have implications for research on automatic chord estimation, but also on other fields that evaluate performance by comparing against human provided annotations that are confounded by subjectivity.
Keywords
sequence crowd learning, music information retrieval, Subjectivity evaluation, automatic chord estimation

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Chicago
Ni, Yizhao, Matt McVicar, Raul Santos-Rodriguez, and Tijl De Bie. 2013. “Understanding Effects of Subjectivity in Measuring Chord Estimation Accuracy.” Ieee Transactions on Audio Speech and Language Processing 21 (12): 2607–2615.
APA
Ni, Y., McVicar, M., Santos-Rodriguez, R., & De Bie, T. (2013). Understanding effects of subjectivity in measuring chord estimation accuracy. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING, 21(12), 2607–2615.
Vancouver
1.
Ni Y, McVicar M, Santos-Rodriguez R, De Bie T. Understanding effects of subjectivity in measuring chord estimation accuracy. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING. 2013;21(12):2607–15.
MLA
Ni, Yizhao et al. “Understanding Effects of Subjectivity in Measuring Chord Estimation Accuracy.” IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING 21.12 (2013): 2607–2615. Print.
@article{6936370,
  abstract     = {To assess the performance of an automatic chord estimation system, reference annotations are indispensable. However, owing to the complexity of music and the sometimes ambiguous harmonic structure of polyphonic music, chord annotations are inherently subjective, and as a result any derived accuracy estimates will be subjective as well. In this paper, we investigate the extent of the confounding effect of subjectivity in reference annotations. Our results show that this effect is important, and they affect different types of automatic chord estimation systems in different ways. Our results have implications for research on automatic chord estimation, but also on other fields that evaluate performance by comparing against human provided annotations that are confounded by subjectivity.},
  author       = {Ni, Yizhao and McVicar, Matt and Santos-Rodriguez, Raul and De Bie, Tijl},
  issn         = {1558-7916},
  journal      = {IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING},
  keywords     = {sequence crowd learning,music information retrieval,Subjectivity evaluation,automatic chord estimation},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {12},
  pages        = {2607--2615},
  title        = {Understanding effects of subjectivity in measuring chord estimation accuracy},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TASL.2013.2280218},
  volume       = {21},
  year         = {2013},
}

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