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Scales tell a story on the stress history of fish

(2015) PLOS ONE. 10(4).
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Abstract
Fish faced with stressful stimuli launch an endocrine stress response through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI-) axis to release cortisol into the blood. Scientifically validated biomarkers to capture systemic cortisol exposure over longer periods of time are of utmost importance to assess chronic stress in governmental, wildlife, aquaculture and scientific settings. Here we demonstrate that cortisol in scales of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is the long-sought biomarker for chronic stress. Undisturbed (CTR) and daily stressed (STRESS) carp were compared. Dexamethasone (DEX) or cortisol (CORT) fed fish served as negative and positive controls, respectively. Scale cortisol was quantified with a validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. An increase in scale cortisol content was found in STRESS and CORT but not in CTR and DEX fish. Scale cortisol content reflects its accumulation in a stressor and time dependent manner and validates the scale cortisol content as biomarker for chronic stress. Plasma analyses confirmed that (i) CTR, DEX and CORT treatments were effective, (ii) plasma cortisol of STRESS fish showed no signs of chronic HPI-axis activation, and (iii) plasma cortisol is a poor predictor for chronic stress. The expression of HPI key genes crf, pomc, and star were up-regulated in STRESS fish in the absence of a plasma cortisol response, as was the target gene of cortisol encoding subunit alpha 1 of the Na+/K+-ATPase in gills. When lost, scales of fish regenerate fast. Regenerated scales corroborate our findings, offering (i) unsurpassed time resolution for cortisol incorporation and as such for stressful events, and (ii) the possibility to investigate stress in a well defined and controlled environment and time frame creating novel opportunities for bone physiological research. We conclude that the cortisol content in ontogenetic and regenerated scales is an innovative biomarker for chronic stress offering ample applications in science and industry.
Keywords
RESPONSES, PLASMA-CORTISOL, carp, UPLC-MS, TRICAINE METHANESULFONATE, RAINBOW-TROUT, ANESTHETIC EFFICACY, GROWTH, scales, cortisol, biomarker chronic stress, fish, WATER, CORTICOSTEROIDS, GLUCOCORTICOIDS, PHYSIOLOGY

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Aerts, Johan et al. “Scales Tell a Story on the Stress History of Fish.” PLOS ONE 10.4 (2015): n. pag. Print.
APA
Aerts, Johan, Metz, J. R., Ampe, B., Decostere, A., Flik, G., & De Saeger, S. (2015). Scales tell a story on the stress history of fish. PLOS ONE, 10(4).
Chicago author-date
Aerts, Johan, Juriaan Rogier Metz, Bart Ampe, Annemie Decostere, Gert Flik, and Sarah De Saeger. 2015. “Scales Tell a Story on the Stress History of Fish.” Plos One 10 (4).
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Aerts, Johan, Juriaan Rogier Metz, Bart Ampe, Annemie Decostere, Gert Flik, and Sarah De Saeger. 2015. “Scales Tell a Story on the Stress History of Fish.” Plos One 10 (4).
Vancouver
1.
Aerts J, Metz JR, Ampe B, Decostere A, Flik G, De Saeger S. Scales tell a story on the stress history of fish. PLOS ONE. 2015;10(4).
IEEE
[1]
J. Aerts, J. R. Metz, B. Ampe, A. Decostere, G. Flik, and S. De Saeger, “Scales tell a story on the stress history of fish,” PLOS ONE, vol. 10, no. 4, 2015.
@article{6923015,
  abstract     = {Fish faced with stressful stimuli launch an endocrine stress response through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI-) axis to release cortisol into the blood. Scientifically validated biomarkers to capture systemic cortisol exposure over longer periods of time are of utmost importance to assess chronic stress in governmental, wildlife, aquaculture and scientific settings. Here we demonstrate that cortisol in scales of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is the long-sought biomarker for chronic stress. Undisturbed (CTR) and daily stressed (STRESS) carp were compared. Dexamethasone (DEX) or cortisol (CORT) fed fish served as negative and positive controls, respectively. Scale cortisol was quantified with a validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. An increase in scale cortisol content was found in STRESS and CORT but not in CTR and DEX fish. Scale cortisol content reflects its accumulation in a stressor and time dependent manner and validates the scale cortisol content as biomarker for chronic stress. Plasma analyses confirmed that (i) CTR, DEX and CORT treatments were effective, (ii) plasma cortisol of STRESS fish showed no signs of chronic HPI-axis activation, and (iii) plasma cortisol is a poor predictor for chronic stress. The expression of HPI key genes crf, pomc, and star were up-regulated in STRESS fish in the absence of a plasma cortisol response, as was the target gene of cortisol encoding subunit alpha 1 of the Na+/K+-ATPase in gills. When lost, scales of fish regenerate fast. Regenerated scales corroborate our findings, offering (i) unsurpassed time resolution for cortisol incorporation and as such for stressful events, and (ii) the possibility to investigate stress in a well defined and controlled environment and time frame creating novel opportunities for bone physiological research. We conclude that the cortisol content in ontogenetic and regenerated scales is an innovative biomarker for chronic stress offering ample applications in science and industry.},
  articleno    = {e0123411},
  author       = {Aerts, Johan and Metz, Juriaan Rogier and Ampe, Bart and Decostere, Annemie and Flik, Gert and De Saeger, Sarah},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  journal      = {PLOS ONE},
  keywords     = {RESPONSES,PLASMA-CORTISOL,carp,UPLC-MS,TRICAINE METHANESULFONATE,RAINBOW-TROUT,ANESTHETIC EFFICACY,GROWTH,scales,cortisol,biomarker chronic stress,fish,WATER,CORTICOSTEROIDS,GLUCOCORTICOIDS,PHYSIOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {17},
  title        = {Scales tell a story on the stress history of fish},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123411},
  volume       = {10},
  year         = {2015},
}

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