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Autism symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a familial trait which correlates with conduct, oppositional defiant, language and motor disorders

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Abstract
It is hypothesised that autism symptoms are present in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are familial and index subtypes of ADHD. Autism symptoms were compared in 821 ADHD probands, 1050 siblings and 149 controls. Shared familiality of autism symptoms and ADHD was calculated using DeFries-Fulker analysis. Autism symptoms were higher in probands than siblings or controls, and higher in male siblings than male controls. Autism symptoms were familial, partly shared with familiality of ADHD in males. Latent class analysis using SCQ-score yielded five classes; Class 1(31%) had few autism symptoms and low comorbidity; Classes 2-4 were intermediate; Class 5(7%) had high autism symptoms and comorbidity. Thus autism symptoms in ADHD represent a familial trait associated with increased neurodevelopmental and oppositional/conduct disorders.
Keywords
Familiality, Autism, Oppositional disorders, Motor disorder, Language disorder, ADHD, DEFICIT-HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER, CHILDRENS-COMMUNICATION-CHECKLIST, SPECTRUM DISORDERS, GENERAL-POPULATION, SOCIAL DISABILITY, TWIN SAMPLE, QUESTIONNAIRE, COMORBIDITY

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Chicago
Mulligan, Aisling, Richard JL Anney, Myra O’Regan, Wai Chen, Louise Butler, Michael Fitzgerald, Jan Buitelaar, et al. 2009. “Autism Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a Familial Trait Which Correlates with Conduct, Oppositional Defiant, Language and Motor Disorders.” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 39 (2): 197–209.
APA
Mulligan, A., Anney, R. J., O’Regan, M., Chen, W., Butler, L., Fitzgerald, M., Buitelaar, J., et al. (2009). Autism symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a familial trait which correlates with conduct, oppositional defiant, language and motor disorders. JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS, 39(2), 197–209.
Vancouver
1.
Mulligan A, Anney RJ, O’Regan M, Chen W, Butler L, Fitzgerald M, et al. Autism symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a familial trait which correlates with conduct, oppositional defiant, language and motor disorders. JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS. 2009;39(2):197–209.
MLA
Mulligan, Aisling, Richard JL Anney, Myra O’Regan, et al. “Autism Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a Familial Trait Which Correlates with Conduct, Oppositional Defiant, Language and Motor Disorders.” JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS 39.2 (2009): 197–209. Print.
@article{691127,
  abstract     = {It is hypothesised that autism symptoms are present in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are familial and index subtypes of ADHD. Autism symptoms were compared in 821 ADHD probands, 1050 siblings and 149 controls. Shared familiality of autism symptoms and ADHD was calculated using DeFries-Fulker analysis. Autism symptoms were higher in probands than siblings or controls, and higher in male siblings than male controls. Autism symptoms were familial, partly shared with familiality of ADHD in males. Latent class analysis using SCQ-score yielded five classes; Class 1(31\%) had few autism symptoms and low comorbidity; Classes 2-4 were intermediate; Class 5(7\%) had high autism symptoms and comorbidity. Thus autism symptoms in ADHD represent a familial trait associated with increased neurodevelopmental and oppositional/conduct disorders.},
  author       = {Mulligan, Aisling and Anney, Richard JL and O'Regan, Myra and Chen, Wai and Butler, Louise and Fitzgerald, Michael and Buitelaar, Jan and Steinhausen, Hans-Christof and Rothenberger, Aribert and Minderaa, Ruud and Nijmeijer, Judith and Hoekstra, Pieter J and Oades, Robert D and Roeyers, Herbert and Buschgens, Cathelijne and Christiansen, Hanna and Franke, Barbara and Gabriels, Isabel and Hartman, Catharina and Kuntsi, Jonna and Marco, Rafaela and Meidad, Sheera and Mueller, Ueli and Psychogiou, Lamprini and Rommelse, Nanda and Thompson, Margaret and Uebel, Henrik and Banaschewski, Tobias and Ebstein, Richard and Eisenberg, Jacques and Manor, Iris and Miranda, Ana and Mulas, Fernando and Sergeant, Joseph and Sonuga-Barke, Edmund and Asherson, Phil and Faraone, Stephen V and Gill, Michael},
  issn         = {0162-3257},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS},
  keyword      = {Familiality,Autism,Oppositional disorders,Motor disorder,Language disorder,ADHD,DEFICIT-HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER,PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER,CHILDRENS-COMMUNICATION-CHECKLIST,SPECTRUM DISORDERS,GENERAL-POPULATION,SOCIAL DISABILITY,TWIN SAMPLE,QUESTIONNAIRE,COMORBIDITY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {197--209},
  title        = {Autism symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a familial trait which correlates with conduct, oppositional defiant, language and motor disorders},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-008-0621-3},
  volume       = {39},
  year         = {2009},
}

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