Ghent University Academic Bibliography

Advanced

Digestion studies in captive Hippopotamidae: a group of large ungulates with an unusually low metabolic rate

A Schwarm, S Ortmann, H Hofer, W Jürgen Streich, EJ Flach, R Kuehne, Jürgen Hummel, JC Castell and Marcus Clauss UGent (2006) JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND ANIMAL NUTRITION. 90(7-8). p.300-308
abstract
We performed intake and digestibility studies in four common (Hippopotamus amphibius) and four pygmy (Hexaprotodon liberiensis) hippos from two zoological institutions, using acid detergent lignin as an internal marker for the quantification of faecal output. In the case of one pygmy hippo, where total faecal collection was also possible, there was no distinct difference between the two methods of faecal output quantification. Two animals from each species were tested on a conventional zoo diet of hay and concentrates (diet HC) and on hay only (diet H). The other two animals received fresh grass at two different levels of intake (diets G1 and G2). Dry matter (DM) intake was higher on HC than on H or G diets, and averaged 37 +/- 11 for common and 35 +/- 14 g/kg(0.75) for pygmy hippos. There were no species differences in the average digestibility (aD) coefficients. Non-dietary faecal nitrogen averaged 65 +/- 4% of total faecal nitrogen, aD of crude protein (CP) averaged 67 +/- 9% and true protein digestibility 89 +/- 3%. Average digestibility of DM and crude fibre averaged 54 +/- 11% and 45 +/- 17%, respectively. In comparison with ruminants, hippos generally achieve lower aD for DM, organic matter and fibre parameters, but equal or higher aD CP coefficients. This is most likely due to the absence of significant fermentative activity in the hindgut and the corresponding low metabolic faecal nitrogen losses. Digestible energy intake was higher on HC than on H or G diets and averaged 0.30 +/- 0.11 MJ/kg(0.75) metabolic body mass. This value is extremely low for ungulates, supporting earlier suspicions that hippos have particularly low metabolic rates, and explains the proneness of this species to obesity in captivity when fed energy-dense pelleted feeds.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
subject
keyword
ELEPHANTS, FEED DIGESTIBILITIES
journal title
JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND ANIMAL NUTRITION
J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr.
volume
90
issue
7-8
pages
300 - 308
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000238838300004
JCR category
VETERINARY SCIENCES
JCR impact factor
1.075 (2006)
JCR rank
38/127 (2006)
JCR quartile
2 (2006)
ISSN
0931-2439
DOI
10.1111/j.1439-0396.2005.00599.x
language
English
UGent publication?
no
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
689637
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-689637
date created
2009-06-11 10:11:46
date last changed
2016-12-19 15:46:22
@article{689637,
  abstract     = {We performed intake and digestibility studies in four common (Hippopotamus amphibius) and four pygmy (Hexaprotodon liberiensis) hippos from two zoological institutions, using acid detergent lignin as an internal marker for the quantification of faecal output. In the case of one pygmy hippo, where total faecal collection was also possible, there was no distinct difference between the two methods of faecal output quantification. Two animals from each species were tested on a conventional zoo diet of hay and concentrates (diet HC) and on hay only (diet H). The other two animals received fresh grass at two different levels of intake (diets G1 and G2). Dry matter (DM) intake was higher on HC than on H or G diets, and averaged 37 +/- 11 for common and 35 +/- 14 g/kg(0.75) for pygmy hippos. There were no species differences in the average digestibility (aD) coefficients. Non-dietary faecal nitrogen averaged 65 +/- 4\% of total faecal nitrogen, aD of crude protein (CP) averaged 67 +/- 9\% and true protein digestibility 89 +/- 3\%. Average digestibility of DM and crude fibre averaged 54 +/- 11\% and 45 +/- 17\%, respectively. In comparison with ruminants, hippos generally achieve lower aD for DM, organic matter and fibre parameters, but equal or higher aD CP coefficients. This is most likely due to the absence of significant fermentative activity in the hindgut and the corresponding low metabolic faecal nitrogen losses. Digestible energy intake was higher on HC than on H or G diets and averaged 0.30 +/- 0.11 MJ/kg(0.75) metabolic body mass. This value is extremely low for ungulates, supporting earlier suspicions that hippos have particularly low metabolic rates, and explains the proneness of this species to obesity in captivity when fed energy-dense pelleted feeds.},
  author       = {Schwarm, A and Ortmann, S and Hofer, H and Streich, W J{\"u}rgen and Flach, EJ and Kuehne, R and Hummel, J{\"u}rgen and Castell, JC and Clauss, Marcus},
  issn         = {0931-2439},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND ANIMAL NUTRITION},
  keyword      = {ELEPHANTS,FEED DIGESTIBILITIES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7-8},
  pages        = {300--308},
  title        = {Digestion studies in captive Hippopotamidae: a group of large ungulates with an unusually low metabolic rate},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0396.2005.00599.x},
  volume       = {90},
  year         = {2006},
}

Chicago
Schwarm, A, S Ortmann, H Hofer, W Jürgen Streich, EJ Flach, R Kuehne, Jürgen Hummel, JC Castell, and Marcus Clauss. 2006. “Digestion Studies in Captive Hippopotamidae: a Group of Large Ungulates with an Unusually Low Metabolic Rate.” Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 90 (7-8): 300–308.
APA
Schwarm, A, Ortmann, S., Hofer, H., Streich, W. J., Flach, E., Kuehne, R., Hummel, J., et al. (2006). Digestion studies in captive Hippopotamidae: a group of large ungulates with an unusually low metabolic rate. JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND ANIMAL NUTRITION, 90(7-8), 300–308.
Vancouver
1.
Schwarm A, Ortmann S, Hofer H, Streich WJ, Flach E, Kuehne R, et al. Digestion studies in captive Hippopotamidae: a group of large ungulates with an unusually low metabolic rate. JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND ANIMAL NUTRITION. 2006;90(7-8):300–8.
MLA
Schwarm, A, S Ortmann, H Hofer, et al. “Digestion Studies in Captive Hippopotamidae: a Group of Large Ungulates with an Unusually Low Metabolic Rate.” JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND ANIMAL NUTRITION 90.7-8 (2006): 300–308. Print.