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Wind tunnel study of ammonia transfer from a manure pit fitted with a dairy cattle slatted floor

(2016) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY. 37(2). p.202-215
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Abstract
In dairy cattle systems, most of the feces and urine go to the pit. At the manure pit level, mass transfer of NH3 (kNH(3)) has many factors, but practical difficulties hamper a controlled field evaluation. In this study, we propose a methodology for the determination of an alternative, more practical, pit transfer coefficient of NH3 (PTC), and compare it with kNH(3) determined from other scientific studies. The aims of this research study were: (1) to develop a wind tunnel set-up which mimics air flow patterns between the slats and above a clean section of a slatted floor section, featuring an aqueous NH3-emitting solution; and (2) to assess how air velocity, turbulence intensity, NH3 concentration ([NH3]) and PTC are influenced by inlet airflow ventilation rate (VR) forced deflection of the air above the slats into the manure pit through varying the deflection angle (DA) of a deflection panel and varying pit headspace height (HH). Main conclusions were: (1) the calculated PTC values presented a good fit to the power function of the air speed near the slats (u) (p < .001) while the average PTC (0.0039 m s(-1)) was comparable to kNH(3) values obtained from other studies, by remaining within the range of average values of 0.0015-0.0043 m s(-1); (2) VR and DA significantly impacted [NH3] profiles and PTC (p < .001) and (3) changing slurry pit from 0.10 to 0.90 m HH did not significantly impact [NH3] or PTC (p = .756 and p = .854, respectively).
Keywords
ammonia-emitting solution, pit headspace height, barn ventilation rate, flow patterns, automatic solution pH control, NATURALLY VENTILATED DAIRY, HOUSE, TEMPERATURE, MANAGEMENT, MASS-TRANSFER, AIR-FLOW, MECHANISTIC MODELS, EMISSIONS, VOLATILIZATION, SYSTEMS

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Chicago
De Paepe, Merlijn, Jan Pieters, Luciano B Mendes, Stephanie Van Weyenberg, Bart Merci, and Peter Demeyer. 2016. “Wind Tunnel Study of Ammonia Transfer from a Manure Pit Fitted with a Dairy Cattle Slatted Floor.” Environmental Technology 37 (2): 202–215.
APA
De Paepe, Merlijn, Pieters, J., Mendes, L. B., Van Weyenberg, S., Merci, B., & Demeyer, P. (2016). Wind tunnel study of ammonia transfer from a manure pit fitted with a dairy cattle slatted floor. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY, 37(2), 202–215.
Vancouver
1.
De Paepe M, Pieters J, Mendes LB, Van Weyenberg S, Merci B, Demeyer P. Wind tunnel study of ammonia transfer from a manure pit fitted with a dairy cattle slatted floor. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY. 2016;37(2):202–15.
MLA
De Paepe, Merlijn, Jan Pieters, Luciano B Mendes, et al. “Wind Tunnel Study of Ammonia Transfer from a Manure Pit Fitted with a Dairy Cattle Slatted Floor.” ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY 37.2 (2016): 202–215. Print.
@article{6892342,
  abstract     = {In dairy cattle systems, most of the feces and urine go to the pit. At the manure pit level, mass transfer of NH3 (kNH(3)) has many factors, but practical difficulties hamper a controlled field evaluation. In this study, we propose a methodology for the determination of an alternative, more practical, pit transfer coefficient of NH3 (PTC), and compare it with kNH(3) determined from other scientific studies. The aims of this research study were: (1) to develop a wind tunnel set-up which mimics air flow patterns between the slats and above a clean section of a slatted floor section, featuring an aqueous NH3-emitting solution; and (2) to assess how air velocity, turbulence intensity, NH3 concentration ([NH3]) and PTC are influenced by inlet airflow ventilation rate (VR) forced deflection of the air above the slats into the manure pit through varying the deflection angle (DA) of a deflection panel and varying pit headspace height (HH). Main conclusions were: (1) the calculated PTC values presented a good fit to the power function of the air speed near the slats (u) (p {\textlangle} .001) while the average PTC (0.0039 m s(-1)) was comparable to kNH(3) values obtained from other studies, by remaining within the range of average values of 0.0015-0.0043 m s(-1); (2) VR and DA significantly impacted [NH3] profiles and PTC (p {\textlangle} .001) and (3) changing slurry pit from 0.10 to 0.90 m HH did not significantly impact [NH3] or PTC (p = .756 and p = .854, respectively).},
  author       = {De Paepe, Merlijn and Pieters, Jan and Mendes, Luciano B and Van Weyenberg, Stephanie and Merci, Bart and Demeyer, Peter},
  issn         = {0959-3330},
  journal      = {ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY},
  keyword      = {ammonia-emitting solution,pit headspace height,barn ventilation rate,flow patterns,automatic solution pH control,NATURALLY VENTILATED DAIRY,HOUSE,TEMPERATURE,MANAGEMENT,MASS-TRANSFER,AIR-FLOW,MECHANISTIC MODELS,EMISSIONS,VOLATILIZATION,SYSTEMS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {202--215},
  title        = {Wind tunnel study of ammonia transfer from a manure pit fitted with a dairy cattle slatted floor},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2015.1066449},
  volume       = {37},
  year         = {2016},
}

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