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Reward sensitivity is related to snack consumption in adolescents

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Abstract
Background: Obesity is a growing problem and has been strongly associated to unhealthy eating behaviours. Unhealthy eating habits already develop during childhood & adolescence and persist through adulthood. Therefore research and prevention programs should target children and adolescents. Reward sensitivity (RS) and Punishment Sensitivity (PS) are personality traits that have been recently proposed to play a key role in the complex problem of obesity. RS is assumed to reflect the functioning of brain circuitry responding to rewards, referred to as the Behavioural Approach System (BAS), while PS is assumed to the reflect the functioning of brain circuitry responding to punishment, referred to as the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS). Especially in adolescents the influence of this traits could be strong, since during adolescence RS peaks. The aim of this study was to examine associations between RS & PS and snack consumption of adolescents. Materials and Methods: Self-reported data on daily snack intake and RS and PS of a representative sample of adolescents (n=545; age: M=14.6 years , SD=0.8 years; 48.1% boys) were collected through a cross-sectional survey. Adjusted linear regression analyses were used to assess associations between predictor variables RS and PS and daily intake of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) and snacks. RS and PS were evaluated by means of the BIS/BAS scales as developed by Carver & White (1994) [1]. Daily snack intake was evaluated by daily intake of healthy (sum of fruit, dried fruit, nuts and raw vegetables), overall unhealthy (sum of sugar-rich, fat-rich and sugar-& fat-rich snack intake), sugar-rich, fat-rich and sugar- & fat-rich snacks. Results: Daily SSB consumption was positively associated with total BAS (β= 0.10, p=0.03), BAS drive (β=0.14, p=0.001) and BAS fun (β=0.10, p=0.03) scores, and negatively with BIS (β=-0.13, p=0.003) scores. Intake of overall unhealthy snacks showed only positive associations with BAS drive (β=0.11, p=0.01) scores. Intake of sugar-rich snacks was only positively associated with BAS drive (β=0.09, p=0.045) scores. Finally, intake of fat-rich snacks was only negatively associated with BIS (β=-0.09, p=0.03) scores. Conclusion: This study demonstrated important associations between personality traits RS and PS and snacking behaviour in adolescents. Whereas RS was linked with the intake of unbalanced snacks, PS was related to a more balanced snacking behaviour.

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Chicago
De Cock, Nathalie, Wendy Van Lippevelde, Lea Maes, Carl Lachat, Lieven Huybrechts, Caroline Braet, Lien Goossens, et al. 2014. “Reward Sensitivity Is Related to Snack Consumption in Adolescents.” In Belgian Nutrition Society, 4th Symposium, Abstracts.
APA
De Cock, N., Van Lippevelde, W., Maes, L., Lachat, C., Huybrechts, L., Braet, C., Goossens, L., et al. (2014). Reward sensitivity is related to snack consumption in adolescents. Belgian Nutrition Society, 4th Symposium, Abstracts. Presented at the 4th Belgian Nutrition Society symposium: Genes and nutrition : is personalised nutrition the next realistic step?
Vancouver
1.
De Cock N, Van Lippevelde W, Maes L, Lachat C, Huybrechts L, Braet C, et al. Reward sensitivity is related to snack consumption in adolescents. Belgian Nutrition Society, 4th Symposium, Abstracts. 2014.
MLA
De Cock, Nathalie, Wendy Van Lippevelde, Lea Maes, et al. “Reward Sensitivity Is Related to Snack Consumption in Adolescents.” Belgian Nutrition Society, 4th Symposium, Abstracts. 2014. Print.
@inproceedings{6881647,
  abstract     = {Background: Obesity is a growing problem and has been strongly associated to unhealthy eating behaviours. Unhealthy eating habits already develop during childhood \& adolescence and persist through adulthood. Therefore research and prevention programs should target children and adolescents. Reward sensitivity (RS) and Punishment Sensitivity (PS) are personality traits that have been recently proposed to play a key role in the complex problem of obesity. RS is assumed to reflect the functioning of brain circuitry responding to rewards, referred to as the Behavioural Approach System (BAS), while PS is assumed to the reflect the functioning of brain circuitry  responding to punishment, referred to as the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS). Especially in adolescents the influence of this traits could be strong, since during adolescence RS peaks. The aim of this study was to examine associations between RS \& PS and snack consumption of adolescents. 
Materials and Methods: Self-reported data on daily snack intake and RS and PS of a representative sample of adolescents (n=545; age: M=14.6 years , SD=0.8 years; 48.1\% boys) were collected through a cross-sectional survey. Adjusted linear regression analyses were used to assess associations between predictor variables RS and PS and daily intake of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) and snacks. RS and PS were evaluated by means of the BIS/BAS scales as developed by Carver \& White (1994) [1]. Daily snack intake was evaluated by daily intake of healthy (sum of fruit, dried fruit, nuts and raw vegetables), overall unhealthy (sum of sugar-rich, fat-rich and sugar-\& fat-rich snack intake), sugar-rich, fat-rich and sugar- \& fat-rich snacks. 
Results: Daily SSB consumption was positively associated with total BAS (\ensuremath{\beta}= 0.10, p=0.03), BAS drive (\ensuremath{\beta}=0.14, p=0.001) and BAS fun (\ensuremath{\beta}=0.10, p=0.03) scores, and negatively with BIS       (\ensuremath{\beta}=-0.13, p=0.003) scores. Intake of overall unhealthy snacks showed only positive associations with BAS drive (\ensuremath{\beta}=0.11, p=0.01) scores. Intake of sugar-rich snacks was only positively associated with BAS drive (\ensuremath{\beta}=0.09, p=0.045) scores. Finally, intake of fat-rich snacks was only negatively associated with BIS (\ensuremath{\beta}=-0.09, p=0.03) scores. 
Conclusion: This study demonstrated important associations between personality traits RS and PS and snacking behaviour in adolescents. Whereas RS was linked with the intake of unbalanced snacks, PS was related to a more balanced snacking behaviour.},
  author       = {De Cock, Nathalie and Van Lippevelde, Wendy and Maes, Lea and Lachat, Carl and Huybrechts, Lieven and Braet, Caroline and Goossens, Lien and Vervoort, Leentje and Eggermont, Steven and Beullens, Kathleen and Vangeel, Jolien and Kolsteren, Patrick and Van Camp, John},
  booktitle    = {Belgian Nutrition Society, 4th Symposium, Abstracts},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Brussels, Belgium},
  title        = {Reward sensitivity is related to snack consumption in adolescents},
  year         = {2014},
}