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Growth of segment parameters and a morphological classification for children between 15 and 36 months

(2009) JOURNAL OF ANATOMY. 214(1). p.79-90
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Abstract
This study is part of a research program that aims at a better understanding of the influence of individual morphological differences and physical growth on development of independent walking in toddlers. As morphometric and segment inertial parameters for toddlers aged between 15 and 36 months are indispensable for the mechanical analyses inherent to this purpose, parameter data were collected. The provided dataset of morphological and segment inertial parameters is a valuable tool for locomotor biomechanical modelling. Analysis of the parameter data showed that there are substantial changes of most segment inertial parameters across body length and body mass. In addition, a classification system was developed to categorize toddlers on the basis of morphometry, reflecting the segment inertial constitution of the child. A principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to define the variance in physique between the children. PCA resulted in three newly composed variables: the 'Axis of chubbiness', the 'Axis of allometric growth' and the 'Axis of relative limb length'. The three axes are plotted against each other, resulting in eight morphological classes. With this classification the morphotype of toddlers between 15 and 36 months can be specified and used for further research on their walking patterns.
Keywords
locomotion, limb segments, postnatal ontogeny, musculoskeletal system, inertial properties, preschool, morphology, inertial parameters, child, classification, mass, walking, radius, model

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MLA
Van Dam, M., A. Hallemans, and Peter Aerts. “Growth of Segment Parameters and a Morphological Classification for Children Between 15 and 36 Months.” JOURNAL OF ANATOMY 214.1 (2009): 79–90. Print.
APA
Van Dam, M., Hallemans, A., & Aerts, P. (2009). Growth of segment parameters and a morphological classification for children between 15 and 36 months. JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, 214(1), 79–90.
Chicago author-date
Van Dam, M., A. Hallemans, and Peter Aerts. 2009. “Growth of Segment Parameters and a Morphological Classification for Children Between 15 and 36 Months.” Journal of Anatomy 214 (1): 79–90.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van Dam, M., A. Hallemans, and Peter Aerts. 2009. “Growth of Segment Parameters and a Morphological Classification for Children Between 15 and 36 Months.” Journal of Anatomy 214 (1): 79–90.
Vancouver
1.
Van Dam M, Hallemans A, Aerts P. Growth of segment parameters and a morphological classification for children between 15 and 36 months. JOURNAL OF ANATOMY. 9600 GARSINGTON RD, OXFORD OX4 2DQ, OXON, ENGLAND: BLACKWELL PUBLISHING; 2009;214(1):79–90.
IEEE
[1]
M. Van Dam, A. Hallemans, and P. Aerts, “Growth of segment parameters and a morphological classification for children between 15 and 36 months,” JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, vol. 214, no. 1, pp. 79–90, 2009.
@article{687195,
  abstract     = {This study is part of a research program that aims at a better understanding of the influence of individual morphological differences and physical growth on development of independent walking in toddlers. As morphometric and segment inertial parameters for toddlers aged between 15 and 36 months are indispensable for the mechanical analyses inherent to this purpose, parameter data were collected. The provided dataset of morphological and segment inertial parameters is a valuable tool for locomotor biomechanical modelling. Analysis of the parameter data showed that there are substantial changes of most segment inertial parameters across body length and body mass. In addition, a classification system was developed to categorize toddlers on the basis of morphometry, reflecting the segment inertial constitution of the child. A principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to define the variance in physique between the children. PCA resulted in three newly composed variables: the 'Axis of chubbiness', the 'Axis of allometric growth' and the 'Axis of relative limb length'. The three axes are plotted against each other, resulting in eight morphological classes. With this classification the morphotype of toddlers between 15 and 36 months can be specified and used for further research on their walking patterns.},
  author       = {Van Dam, M. and Hallemans, A. and Aerts, Peter},
  issn         = {0021-8782},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF ANATOMY},
  keywords     = {locomotion,limb segments,postnatal ontogeny,musculoskeletal system,inertial properties,preschool,morphology,inertial parameters,child,classification,mass,walking,radius,model},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {79--90},
  publisher    = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHING},
  title        = {Growth of segment parameters and a morphological classification for children between 15 and 36 months},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.01016.x},
  volume       = {214},
  year         = {2009},
}

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