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The effects of non-suicidal self-injury on parenting behaviors: a longitudinal analyses of the perspective of the parent

Imke Baetens, Laurence Claes, Patrick Onghena, Hans Grietens, Karla Van Leeuwen, Ciska Pieters, Roeljan Wiersema UGent and James W Griffith (2015) CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY AND MENTAL HEALTH. 9.
abstract
Background: The present study is the first to examine predictors and consequences of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescence using parent-reported data in a longitudinal design. Across three time points, we examined the reciprocal effects of parent-reported parenting behaviors as they are related to adolescents' NSSI. Methods: The present study is a three-wave prospective study in a large sample of community adolescents and their parents. At time 1 (age 12), the sample consisted of 1396 adolescent reports and 1438 parent reports. Time 2 (age 13) included 827 adolescent and 936 parent reports. At time 3 (age 14), 754 adolescent and 790 parent reports were obtained. Engagement in NSSI (adolescent report) was determined by an affirmative response to the item 'Have you intentionally injured yourself (e.g., cut, burn, scratch) this year, without the intent to die?'. Parental awareness of NSSI at age 13 and 14 was examined using a single-item screening question. Parenting behaviors were examined by the parent versions of the Parental Behavior Scale. Results: Results showed that although NSSI was reported by 10 % of the adolescents, only 3 % of the parents were aware of the NSSI behaviors of their children. Cross-lagged analyses showed a reciprocal relationship between NSSI and parenting behaviors over time. We found a significant effect of both positive parenting and controlling parenting on the presence of NSSI at time 2. But vice versa NSSI also has an effect on parenting behaviors over time. Results showed that NSSI at time 1 has an impact on controlling parenting behaviors, namely punishment at time 2. NSSI at time 2 showed an impact on parent's perception of positive parenting, parental rule setting, punishment and harsh punishment. Conclusions: The present study examined predictors and consequences of NSSI in a longitudinal design, and emphasized the importance of examining reciprocal interactions between NSSI and parenting behaviors. Furthermore, it is the first study to examine parent-reported data in a longitudinal design and gives insight into parents' perspectives.
Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:
author
organization
year
type
journalArticle (original)
publication status
published
keyword
Consequences, Adolescence, Longitudinal, Parenting behaviours, Parent-reported data, NSSI, Cross-lagged analyses, Nonsuicidal self-injury, RATES, ADOLESCENCE
journal title
CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY AND MENTAL HEALTH
volume
9
article number
24
Web of Science type
Article
Web of Science id
000370940700001
JCR category
PEDIATRICS
JCR impact factor
2.134 (2015)
JCR rank
34/120 (2015)
JCR quartile
2 (2015)
ISSN
1753-2000
DOI
10.1186/s13034-015-0059-2
language
English
UGent publication?
yes
classification
A1
copyright statement
I have transferred the copyright for this publication to the publisher
id
6870380
handle
http://hdl.handle.net/1854/LU-6870380
date created
2015-07-09 11:54:21
date last changed
2016-12-21 15:42:09
@article{6870380,
  abstract     = {Background: The present study is the first to examine predictors and consequences of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescence using parent-reported data in a longitudinal design. Across three time points, we examined the reciprocal effects of parent-reported parenting behaviors as they are related to adolescents' NSSI. 

Methods: The present study is a three-wave prospective study in a large sample of community adolescents and their parents. At time 1 (age 12), the sample consisted of 1396 adolescent reports and 1438 parent reports. Time 2 (age 13) included 827 adolescent and 936 parent reports. At time 3 (age 14), 754 adolescent and 790 parent reports were obtained. Engagement in NSSI (adolescent report) was determined by an affirmative response to the item 'Have you intentionally injured yourself (e.g., cut, burn, scratch) this year, without the intent to die?'. Parental awareness of NSSI at age 13 and 14 was examined using a single-item screening question. Parenting behaviors were examined by the parent versions of the Parental Behavior Scale. 

Results: Results showed that although NSSI was reported by 10 \% of the adolescents, only 3 \% of the parents were aware of the NSSI behaviors of their children. Cross-lagged analyses showed a reciprocal relationship between NSSI and parenting behaviors over time. We found a significant effect of both positive parenting and controlling parenting on the presence of NSSI at time 2. But vice versa NSSI also has an effect on parenting behaviors over time. Results showed that NSSI at time 1 has an impact on controlling parenting behaviors, namely punishment at time 2. NSSI at time 2 showed an impact on parent's perception of positive parenting, parental rule setting, punishment and harsh punishment. 

Conclusions: The present study examined predictors and consequences of NSSI in a longitudinal design, and emphasized the importance of examining reciprocal interactions between NSSI and parenting behaviors. Furthermore, it is the first study to examine parent-reported data in a longitudinal design and gives insight into parents' perspectives.},
  articleno    = {24},
  author       = {Baetens, Imke and Claes, Laurence and Onghena, Patrick and Grietens, Hans and Van Leeuwen, Karla and Pieters, Ciska and Wiersema, Roeljan and Griffith, James W},
  issn         = {1753-2000},
  journal      = {CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY AND MENTAL HEALTH},
  keyword      = {Consequences,Adolescence,Longitudinal,Parenting behaviours,Parent-reported data,NSSI,Cross-lagged analyses,Nonsuicidal self-injury,RATES,ADOLESCENCE},
  language     = {eng},
  title        = {The effects of non-suicidal self-injury on parenting behaviors: a longitudinal analyses of the perspective of the parent},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13034-015-0059-2},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2015},
}

Chicago
Baetens, Imke, Laurence Claes, Patrick Onghena, Hans Grietens, Karla Van Leeuwen, Ciska Pieters, Roeljan Wiersema, and James W Griffith. 2015. “The Effects of Non-suicidal Self-injury on Parenting Behaviors: a Longitudinal Analyses of the Perspective of the Parent.” Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 9.
APA
Baetens, Imke, Claes, L., Onghena, P., Grietens, H., Van Leeuwen, K., Pieters, C., Wiersema, R., et al. (2015). The effects of non-suicidal self-injury on parenting behaviors: a longitudinal analyses of the perspective of the parent. CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY AND MENTAL HEALTH, 9.
Vancouver
1.
Baetens I, Claes L, Onghena P, Grietens H, Van Leeuwen K, Pieters C, et al. The effects of non-suicidal self-injury on parenting behaviors: a longitudinal analyses of the perspective of the parent. CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY AND MENTAL HEALTH. 2015;9.
MLA
Baetens, Imke, Laurence Claes, Patrick Onghena, et al. “The Effects of Non-suicidal Self-injury on Parenting Behaviors: a Longitudinal Analyses of the Perspective of the Parent.” CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY AND MENTAL HEALTH 9 (2015): n. pag. Print.