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Early adaption to the Antarctic environment at Dome C: consequences on stress-sensitive innate immune functions

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Abstract
Purpose/Aims: Medical reports of Antarctic expeditions indicate that health is affected under these extreme conditions. The present study at CONCORDIA-Station (Dome C, 3233 m) seeks to investigate the early consequences of confinement and hypobaric hypoxia on the human organism. Methods: Nine healthy male participants were included in this study. Data collection occurred before traveling to Antarctica (baseline), and at 1 week and 1 month upon arrival. Investigated parameters included basic physiological variables, psychological stress tests, cell blood count, stress hormones, and markers of innate immune functions in resting and stimulated immune cells. By testing for the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production of stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), the effects of the hypoxia-adenosine-sensitive immune modulatory pathways were examined. Results: As compared to baseline data, reduced oxygen saturation, hemoconcentration, and an increase of secreted catecholamines was observed, whereas no psychological stress was seen. Upon stimulation, the activity of PMNs and L-selectin shedding was mitigated after 1 week. Endogenous adenosine concentration was elevated during the early phase. In summary, living conditions at high altitude influence the innate immune system's response. After 1 month, some of the early effects on the human organism were restored. Conclusion: As this early adaptation is not related to psychological stress, the changes observed are likely to be induced by environmental stressors, especially hypoxia. As hypoxia is triggering ATP-catabolism, leading to elevated endogenous adenosine concentrations, this and the increased catecholamine concentration might contribute to the early, but reversible downregulation of innate immune functions. This indicates the slope of innate immune adaptation to hypoxia.
Keywords
HIGH-ALTITUDE, ADENOSINE A(2A) RECEPTORS, HEALTHY-VOLUNTEERS, HYPOXIA, CORTISOL, MEGAKARYOCYTOPOIESIS, CATECHOLAMINES, INFLAMMATION, RESPONSES, AFFINITY, polymorphonuclear leukoc, hypobaric hypoxia, hormones, Adenosine, Antarctica

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Citation

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MLA
Feuerecker, Matthias et al. “Early Adaption to the Antarctic Environment at Dome C: Consequences on Stress-sensitive Innate Immune Functions.” HIGH ALTITUDE MEDICINE & BIOLOGY 15.3 (2014): 341–348. Print.
APA
Feuerecker, M., Crucian, B., Salam, A. P., Rybka, A., Kaufmann, I., Moreels, M., Quintens, R., et al. (2014). Early adaption to the Antarctic environment at Dome C: consequences on stress-sensitive innate immune functions. HIGH ALTITUDE MEDICINE & BIOLOGY, 15(3), 341–348.
Chicago author-date
Feuerecker, Matthias, Brian Crucian, Alex P Salam, Ales Rybka, Inès Kaufmann, Marjan Moreels, Roel Quintens, et al. 2014. “Early Adaption to the Antarctic Environment at Dome C: Consequences on Stress-sensitive Innate Immune Functions.” High Altitude Medicine & Biology 15 (3): 341–348.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Feuerecker, Matthias, Brian Crucian, Alex P Salam, Ales Rybka, Inès Kaufmann, Marjan Moreels, Roel Quintens, Gustav Schelling, Manfred Thiel, Sarah Baatout, Clarence Sams, and Alexander Choukèr. 2014. “Early Adaption to the Antarctic Environment at Dome C: Consequences on Stress-sensitive Innate Immune Functions.” High Altitude Medicine & Biology 15 (3): 341–348.
Vancouver
1.
Feuerecker M, Crucian B, Salam AP, Rybka A, Kaufmann I, Moreels M, et al. Early adaption to the Antarctic environment at Dome C: consequences on stress-sensitive innate immune functions. HIGH ALTITUDE MEDICINE & BIOLOGY. 2014;15(3):341–8.
IEEE
[1]
M. Feuerecker et al., “Early adaption to the Antarctic environment at Dome C: consequences on stress-sensitive innate immune functions,” HIGH ALTITUDE MEDICINE & BIOLOGY, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 341–348, 2014.
@article{6854775,
  abstract     = {Purpose/Aims: Medical reports of Antarctic expeditions indicate that health is affected under these extreme conditions. The present study at CONCORDIA-Station (Dome C, 3233 m) seeks to investigate the early consequences of confinement and hypobaric hypoxia on the human organism.
Methods: Nine healthy male participants were included in this study. Data collection occurred before traveling to Antarctica (baseline), and at 1 week and 1 month upon arrival. Investigated parameters included basic physiological variables, psychological stress tests, cell blood count, stress hormones, and markers of innate immune functions in resting and stimulated immune cells. By testing for the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production of stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), the effects of the hypoxia-adenosine-sensitive immune modulatory pathways were examined.
Results: As compared to baseline data, reduced oxygen saturation, hemoconcentration, and an increase of secreted catecholamines was observed, whereas no psychological stress was seen. Upon stimulation, the activity of PMNs and L-selectin shedding was mitigated after 1 week. Endogenous adenosine concentration was elevated during the early phase. In summary, living conditions at high altitude influence the innate immune system's response. After 1 month, some of the early effects on the human organism were restored.
Conclusion: As this early adaptation is not related to psychological stress, the changes observed are likely to be induced by environmental stressors, especially hypoxia. As hypoxia is triggering ATP-catabolism, leading to elevated endogenous adenosine concentrations, this and the increased catecholamine concentration might contribute to the early, but reversible downregulation of innate immune functions. This indicates the slope of innate immune adaptation to hypoxia.},
  author       = {Feuerecker, Matthias and Crucian, Brian and Salam, Alex P and Rybka, Ales and Kaufmann, Inès and Moreels, Marjan and Quintens, Roel and Schelling, Gustav and Thiel, Manfred and Baatout, Sarah and Sams, Clarence and Choukèr, Alexander},
  issn         = {1527-0297},
  journal      = {HIGH ALTITUDE MEDICINE & BIOLOGY},
  keywords     = {HIGH-ALTITUDE,ADENOSINE A(2A) RECEPTORS,HEALTHY-VOLUNTEERS,HYPOXIA,CORTISOL,MEGAKARYOCYTOPOIESIS,CATECHOLAMINES,INFLAMMATION,RESPONSES,AFFINITY,polymorphonuclear leukoc,hypobaric hypoxia,hormones,Adenosine,Antarctica},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {341--348},
  title        = {Early adaption to the Antarctic environment at Dome C: consequences on stress-sensitive innate immune functions},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ham.2013.1128},
  volume       = {15},
  year         = {2014},
}

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