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Delay and Reward Choice in ADHD: An Experimental Test of the Role of Delay Aversion

(2009) NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. 23(3). p.367-380
Author
Organization
Abstract
Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) choose smaller sooner (SS) over larger later (LL) rewards more than controls. Here we assess the contributions of impulsive drive for immediate rewards (IDIR) and delay aversion (DAv) to this pattern. We also explore the characteristics of, and the degree of familiality in, ADHD SS responders. We had 360 ADHD probands; 349 siblings and 112 controls (aged between 6 to 17 years) chose between SS (1 point after 2 s) and LL reward (2 points after 30 s) outcomes on the Maudsley Index of Delay Aversion (Kuntsi, Oosterlaan, & Stevenson, 2001): Under one condition SS choice led to less overall trial delay under another it did not. ADHD participants chose SS more than controls under both conditions. This effect was larger when SS choice reduced trial delay. ADHD SS responders were younger, had lower IQ, more conduct disorder and had siblings who were more likely to be SS responders themselves. The results support a dual component model in which both IDIR and DAv contribute to SS choice in ADHD. SS choice may be a marker of an ADHD motivational subtype.
Keywords
PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS, DUAL PATHWAY MODEL, EXECUTIVE FUNCTION DEFICITS, ALTERED REINFORCEMENT MECHANISMS, DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, adolescents, children, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, delay aversion, RESPONSE-INHIBITION, CRITERION VALIDITY, COMBINED SUBTYPES, DECISION-MAKING

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Chicago
Marco, Rafaela, Ana Miranda, Wolff Schlotz, Amanda Melia, Aisling Mulligan, Ueli Muller, Penny Andreou, et al. 2009. “Delay and Reward Choice in ADHD: An Experimental Test of the Role of Delay Aversion.” Neuropsychology 23 (3): 367–380.
APA
Marco, R., Miranda, A., Schlotz, W., Melia, A., Mulligan, A., Muller, U., Andreou, P., et al. (2009). Delay and Reward Choice in ADHD: An Experimental Test of the Role of Delay Aversion. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY, 23(3), 367–380.
Vancouver
1.
Marco R, Miranda A, Schlotz W, Melia A, Mulligan A, Muller U, et al. Delay and Reward Choice in ADHD: An Experimental Test of the Role of Delay Aversion. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY. WASHINGTON ; UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC/EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING FOUNDATION; 2009;23(3):367–80.
MLA
Marco, Rafaela et al. “Delay and Reward Choice in ADHD: An Experimental Test of the Role of Delay Aversion.” NEUROPSYCHOLOGY 23.3 (2009): 367–380. Print.
@article{685279,
  abstract     = {Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) choose smaller sooner (SS) over larger later (LL) rewards more than controls. Here we assess the contributions of impulsive drive for immediate rewards (IDIR) and delay aversion (DAv) to this pattern. We also explore the characteristics of, and the degree of familiality in, ADHD SS responders. We had 360 ADHD probands; 349 siblings and 112 controls (aged between 6 to 17 years) chose between SS (1 point after 2 s) and LL reward (2 points after 30 s) outcomes on the Maudsley Index of Delay Aversion (Kuntsi, Oosterlaan, & Stevenson, 2001): Under one condition SS choice led to less overall trial delay under another it did not. ADHD participants chose SS more than controls under both conditions. This effect was larger when SS choice reduced trial delay. ADHD SS responders were younger, had lower IQ, more conduct disorder and had siblings who were more likely to be SS responders themselves. The results support a dual component model in which both IDIR and DAv contribute to SS choice in ADHD. SS choice may be a marker of an ADHD motivational subtype.},
  author       = {Marco, Rafaela and Miranda, Ana and Schlotz, Wolff and Melia, Amanda and Mulligan, Aisling and Muller, Ueli and Andreou, Penny and Butler, Louise and Christiansen, Hanna and Gabriels, Isabel and Medad, Sheera and Albrecht, Bjorn and Uebel, Henrik and Asherson, Phillip and Banaschewski, Tobias and Gill, Michael and Kuntsi, Jonna and Mulas, Fernando and Oades, Robert and Roeyers, Herbert and Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph and Rothenberger, Aribert and Faraone, Stephen V. and Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.S.},
  issn         = {0894-4105},
  journal      = {NEUROPSYCHOLOGY},
  keywords     = {PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS,DUAL PATHWAY MODEL,EXECUTIVE FUNCTION DEFICITS,ALTERED REINFORCEMENT MECHANISMS,DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER,ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER,adolescents,children,attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder,delay aversion,RESPONSE-INHIBITION,CRITERION VALIDITY,COMBINED SUBTYPES,DECISION-MAKING},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {367--380},
  publisher    = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC/EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING FOUNDATION},
  title        = {Delay and Reward Choice in ADHD: An Experimental Test of the Role of Delay Aversion},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0014914},
  volume       = {23},
  year         = {2009},
}

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