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Co-occurrence of fumonisins with aflatoxins in home-stored maize for human consumption in rural villages of Tanzania

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Abstract
This study determined maize-user practices that influence the presence of fumonisin and aflatoxin contamination of maize in food consumed in the rural areas of Tanzania. Samples of the 2005 maize harvest in Tanzania were collected from 120 households and examined for fumonisins and aflatoxins. Information on whether the maize was sorted to remove defective (visibly damaged or mouldy) maize before storage and whether the damaged and mouldy maize or the non-dehulled maize was used as food was also collected. In addition, the percentage of defective kernels in the samples was determined. Ninety per cent of the households sorted out defective maize, 45% consumed the defective maize and 30% consumed non-dehulled maize. In 52% of the samples fumonisins were determined at levels up to 11,048 g kg-1 (median = 363 g kg-1) and in 15% exceeded 1000 g kg-1; the maximum tolerable limit (MTL) for fumonisins in maize for human consumption in other countries. Aflatoxins were detected in 18% of the samples at levels up to 158 g kg-1 (median = 24 g kg-1). Twelve per cent of the samples exceeded the Tanzanian limit for total aflatoxins (10 g kg-1). Aflatoxins co-occurred with fumonisins in 10% of the samples. The percentage defective kernels (mean = 22%) correlated positively (r = 0.39) with the fumonisin levels. Tanzanians are at a risk of exposure to fumonisins and aflatoxins in maize. There is a need for further research on fumonisin and aflatoxin exposure in Tanzania to develop appropriate control strategies.
Keywords
INSECT INFESTATION, FUSARIUM-MONILIFORME, MYCOTOXIN CONTAMINATION, ESOPHAGEAL CANCER, fumonisins, Tanzania, home-stored maize, co-occurrence, aflatoxins, CORN, TRANSKEI, FOODS, PRODUCTS, EXPOSURE, REGIONS

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Citation

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MLA
Kimanya, Martin E et al. “Co-occurrence of Fumonisins with Aflatoxins in Home-stored Maize for Human Consumption in Rural Villages of Tanzania.” FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS PART A-CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS CONTROL EXPOSURE & RISK ASSESSMENT 25.11 (2008): 1353–1364. Print.
APA
Kimanya, M. E., De Meulenaer, B., Tiisekwa, B., Ndomondo-Sigonda, M., Devlieghere, F., Van Camp, J., & Kolsteren, P. (2008). Co-occurrence of fumonisins with aflatoxins in home-stored maize for human consumption in rural villages of Tanzania. FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS PART A-CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS CONTROL EXPOSURE & RISK ASSESSMENT, 25(11), 1353–1364.
Chicago author-date
Kimanya, Martin E, Bruno De Meulenaer, B Tiisekwa, M Ndomondo-Sigonda, Frank Devlieghere, John Van Camp, and Patrick Kolsteren. 2008. “Co-occurrence of Fumonisins with Aflatoxins in Home-stored Maize for Human Consumption in Rural Villages of Tanzania.” Food Additives and Contaminants Part A-chemistry Analysis Control Exposure & Risk Assessment 25 (11): 1353–1364.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Kimanya, Martin E, Bruno De Meulenaer, B Tiisekwa, M Ndomondo-Sigonda, Frank Devlieghere, John Van Camp, and Patrick Kolsteren. 2008. “Co-occurrence of Fumonisins with Aflatoxins in Home-stored Maize for Human Consumption in Rural Villages of Tanzania.” Food Additives and Contaminants Part A-chemistry Analysis Control Exposure & Risk Assessment 25 (11): 1353–1364.
Vancouver
1.
Kimanya ME, De Meulenaer B, Tiisekwa B, Ndomondo-Sigonda M, Devlieghere F, Van Camp J, et al. Co-occurrence of fumonisins with aflatoxins in home-stored maize for human consumption in rural villages of Tanzania. FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS PART A-CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS CONTROL EXPOSURE & RISK ASSESSMENT. 2008;25(11):1353–64.
IEEE
[1]
M. E. Kimanya et al., “Co-occurrence of fumonisins with aflatoxins in home-stored maize for human consumption in rural villages of Tanzania,” FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS PART A-CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS CONTROL EXPOSURE & RISK ASSESSMENT, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 1353–1364, 2008.
@article{685271,
  abstract     = {This study determined maize-user practices that influence the presence of fumonisin and aflatoxin contamination of maize in food consumed in the rural areas of Tanzania. Samples of the 2005 maize harvest in Tanzania were collected from 120 households and examined for fumonisins and aflatoxins. Information on whether the maize was sorted to remove defective (visibly damaged or mouldy) maize before storage and whether the damaged and mouldy maize or the non-dehulled maize was used as food was also collected. In addition, the percentage of defective kernels in the samples was determined. Ninety per cent of the households sorted out defective maize, 45% consumed the defective maize and 30% consumed non-dehulled maize. In 52% of the samples fumonisins were determined at levels up to 11,048 g kg-1 (median = 363 g kg-1) and in 15% exceeded 1000 g kg-1; the maximum tolerable limit (MTL) for fumonisins in maize for human consumption in other countries. Aflatoxins were detected in 18% of the samples at levels up to 158 g kg-1 (median = 24 g kg-1). Twelve per cent of the samples exceeded the Tanzanian limit for total aflatoxins (10 g kg-1). Aflatoxins co-occurred with fumonisins in 10% of the samples. The percentage defective kernels (mean = 22%) correlated positively (r = 0.39) with the fumonisin levels. Tanzanians are at a risk of exposure to fumonisins and aflatoxins in maize. There is a need for further research on fumonisin and aflatoxin exposure in Tanzania to develop appropriate control strategies.},
  author       = {Kimanya, Martin E and De Meulenaer, Bruno and Tiisekwa, B and Ndomondo-Sigonda, M and Devlieghere, Frank and Van Camp, John and Kolsteren, Patrick},
  issn         = {0265-203X},
  journal      = {FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS PART A-CHEMISTRY ANALYSIS CONTROL EXPOSURE & RISK ASSESSMENT},
  keywords     = {INSECT INFESTATION,FUSARIUM-MONILIFORME,MYCOTOXIN CONTAMINATION,ESOPHAGEAL CANCER,fumonisins,Tanzania,home-stored maize,co-occurrence,aflatoxins,CORN,TRANSKEI,FOODS,PRODUCTS,EXPOSURE,REGIONS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {1353--1364},
  title        = {Co-occurrence of fumonisins with aflatoxins in home-stored maize for human consumption in rural villages of Tanzania},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02652030802112601},
  volume       = {25},
  year         = {2008},
}

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