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Body composition, bone turnover, and bone mass in trans men during testosterone treatment: 1-year follow-up data from a prospective case-controlled study (ENIGI)

Eva Van Caenegem (UGent) , Katrien Wierckx, Youri Taes (UGent) , Thomas Schreiner (UGent) , SARA VANDEWALLE (UGent) , Kaatje Toye (UGent) , Bruno Lapauw (UGent) , Jean Kaufman (UGent) and Guy T'Sjoen (UGent)
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Abstract
Purpose: To assess the evolution of body composition and bone metabolism in trans men during the first year of cross-sex hormonal therapy. Methods: In a prospective controlled study, we included 23 trans men (female-to-male trans persons) and 23 age-matched control women. In both groups, we examined grip strength (hand dynamometer), biochemical markers of bone turnover (C-terminal telopeptides of type 1 collagen (CTX) and procollagen 1 aminoterminal propeptide (P1NP)), total body fat and lean mass, and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and fat and muscle area at the forearm and calf, bone geometry, and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), before treatment and after 1 year of treatment with undecanoate (1000 mg i.m./12 weeks). Results: Before hormonal treatment, trans men had similar bone and body composition compared with control women. Testosterone treatment induced in trans men a gain in muscle mass (+10.4%) and strength and loss of fat mass (-9.7%) (all P<0.001) and increased the levels of P1NP and CTX (both P<0.01). Areal and volumetric bone parameters remained largely unchanged apart from a small increase in trabecular vBMD at the distal radius and in BMD at the total hip in trans men (P=0.036 and P=0.001 respectively). None of these changes were observed in the control group. Conclusions: Short-term testosterone treatment in trans men increased muscle mass and bone turnover. The latter may rather reflect an anabolic effect of testosterone treatment rather than bone loss.
Keywords
POLYCYSTIC-OVARY-SYNDROME, TO-MALE TRANSSEXUALS, MINERAL DENSITY, PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY, POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN, ESTROGEN DEFICIENCY, SKELETAL-MUSCLE, UNITARY MODEL, SEX STEROIDS, FEMALE

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Chicago
Van Caenegem, Eva, Katrien Wierckx, Youri Taes, Thomas Schreiner, Sara Vandewalle, Kaatje Toye, Bruno Lapauw, Jean Kaufman, and Guy T’Sjoen. 2015. “Body Composition, Bone Turnover, and Bone Mass in Trans Men During Testosterone Treatment: 1-year Follow-up Data from a Prospective Case-controlled Study (ENIGI).” European Journal of Endocrinology 172 (2): 163–171.
APA
Van Caenegem, E., Wierckx, K., Taes, Y., Schreiner, T., Vandewalle, S., Toye, K., Lapauw, B., et al. (2015). Body composition, bone turnover, and bone mass in trans men during testosterone treatment: 1-year follow-up data from a prospective case-controlled study (ENIGI). EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, 172(2), 163–171.
Vancouver
1.
Van Caenegem E, Wierckx K, Taes Y, Schreiner T, Vandewalle S, Toye K, et al. Body composition, bone turnover, and bone mass in trans men during testosterone treatment: 1-year follow-up data from a prospective case-controlled study (ENIGI). EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY. 2015;172(2):163–71.
MLA
Van Caenegem, Eva, Katrien Wierckx, Youri Taes, et al. “Body Composition, Bone Turnover, and Bone Mass in Trans Men During Testosterone Treatment: 1-year Follow-up Data from a Prospective Case-controlled Study (ENIGI).” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY 172.2 (2015): 163–171. Print.
@article{6850563,
  abstract     = {Purpose: To assess the evolution of body composition and bone metabolism in trans men during the first year of cross-sex hormonal therapy. 
Methods: In a prospective controlled study, we included 23 trans men (female-to-male trans persons) and 23 age-matched control women. In both groups, we examined grip strength (hand dynamometer), biochemical markers of bone turnover (C-terminal telopeptides of type 1 collagen (CTX) and procollagen 1 aminoterminal propeptide (P1NP)), total body fat and lean mass, and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and fat and muscle area at the forearm and calf, bone geometry, and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), before treatment and after 1 year of treatment with undecanoate (1000 mg i.m./12 weeks). 
Results: Before hormonal treatment, trans men had similar bone and body composition compared with control women. Testosterone treatment induced in trans men a gain in muscle mass (+10.4\%) and strength and loss of fat mass (-9.7\%) (all P{\textlangle}0.001) and increased the levels of P1NP and CTX (both P{\textlangle}0.01). Areal and volumetric bone parameters remained largely unchanged apart from a small increase in trabecular vBMD at the distal radius and in BMD at the total hip in trans men (P=0.036 and P=0.001 respectively). None of these changes were observed in the control group. 
Conclusions: Short-term testosterone treatment in trans men increased muscle mass and bone turnover. The latter may rather reflect an anabolic effect of testosterone treatment rather than bone loss.},
  author       = {Van Caenegem, Eva and Wierckx, Katrien and Taes, Youri and Schreiner, Thomas and VANDEWALLE, SARA and Toye, Kaatje and Lapauw, Bruno and Kaufman, Jean and T'Sjoen, Guy},
  issn         = {0804-4643},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY},
  keyword      = {POLYCYSTIC-OVARY-SYNDROME,TO-MALE TRANSSEXUALS,MINERAL DENSITY,PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY,POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN,ESTROGEN DEFICIENCY,SKELETAL-MUSCLE,UNITARY MODEL,SEX STEROIDS,FEMALE},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {163--171},
  title        = {Body composition, bone turnover, and bone mass in trans men during testosterone treatment: 1-year follow-up data from a prospective case-controlled study (ENIGI)},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-14-0586},
  volume       = {172},
  year         = {2015},
}

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