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Mineral concentrations in serum/plasma and liver tissue of captive and free-ranging rhinoceros species

(2005) ZOO BIOLOGY. 24(1). p.51-72
Author
Organization
Abstract
Mineral implications in health issues of captive rhinos have received much attention lately. This study was undertaken to establish reference values for the mineral status of rhinos. Serum/plasma samples of free-ranging black (Diceros bicornis) and white (Ceratotherium simum) rhinos and of captive black, white, Indian (Rhinoceros unicornis), and Sumatran (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) rhinos, as well as liver tissue samples of captive black, white, and Indian rhinos were analyzed for mineral content. Circulating mineral levels of free-ranging animals were subject to variation according to region. In free-ranging animals, high molybdenum (Mo) values compared to horse normals were striking. Captive animals displayed even higher circulating Mo concentrations. The significance of iron (Fe) overload in captive specimens of the browsing rhinos (black and Sumatran) was confirmed. Hepatic Fe levels increased in blacks with age. Although this Fe overload is suspected to be linked with diets, the data indicate that this is not due solely to an excessive dietary Fe supply. Whereas the grazing species (white and Indian) had high liver copper (Cu) levels, the browsing species had low to marginal liver Cu concentrations. Liver concentrations of K, Mg, Co, and Mo increased with age in captive black rhinos. Additional findings include high circulating Se levels in all rhino species. Future research should be directed at investigating factors leading to high Fe levels, and at investigating Cu metabolism in captive rhinoceros species.
Keywords
Dicerorhinus sumatrensis, EQUINE LIVER, DICEROS-BICORNIS, PLASMA-MASS SPECTROMETRY, DICERORHINUS-SUMATRENSIS, NUTRIENT COMPOSITION, CERATOTHERIUM-SIMUM, DIETARY MOLYBDENUM, CALCIUM EXCRETION, IRON-METABOLISM, COPPER-DEFICIENT RATS, mineral nutrition, rhinoceros, Rhinoceros unicornis, Ceratotherium simum, Diceros bicornis

Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Dierenfeld, Ellen S et al. “Mineral Concentrations in Serum/plasma and Liver Tissue of Captive and Free-ranging Rhinoceros Species.” ZOO BIOLOGY 24.1 (2005): 51–72. Print.
APA
Dierenfeld, E. S., Atkinson, S., Craig, A. M., Walker, K. C., Streich, W. J., & Clauss, M. (2005). Mineral concentrations in serum/plasma and liver tissue of captive and free-ranging rhinoceros species. ZOO BIOLOGY, 24(1), 51–72.
Chicago author-date
Dierenfeld, Ellen S, Shirley Atkinson, A Morrie Craig, Karen C Walker, W Jürgen Streich, and Marcus Clauss. 2005. “Mineral Concentrations in Serum/plasma and Liver Tissue of Captive and Free-ranging Rhinoceros Species.” Zoo Biology 24 (1): 51–72.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Dierenfeld, Ellen S, Shirley Atkinson, A Morrie Craig, Karen C Walker, W Jürgen Streich, and Marcus Clauss. 2005. “Mineral Concentrations in Serum/plasma and Liver Tissue of Captive and Free-ranging Rhinoceros Species.” Zoo Biology 24 (1): 51–72.
Vancouver
1.
Dierenfeld ES, Atkinson S, Craig AM, Walker KC, Streich WJ, Clauss M. Mineral concentrations in serum/plasma and liver tissue of captive and free-ranging rhinoceros species. ZOO BIOLOGY. 2005;24(1):51–72.
IEEE
[1]
E. S. Dierenfeld, S. Atkinson, A. M. Craig, K. C. Walker, W. J. Streich, and M. Clauss, “Mineral concentrations in serum/plasma and liver tissue of captive and free-ranging rhinoceros species,” ZOO BIOLOGY, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 51–72, 2005.
@article{684657,
  abstract     = {Mineral implications in health issues of captive rhinos have received much attention lately. This study was undertaken to establish reference values for the mineral status of rhinos. Serum/plasma samples of free-ranging black (Diceros bicornis) and white (Ceratotherium simum) rhinos and of captive black, white, Indian (Rhinoceros unicornis), and Sumatran (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) rhinos, as well as liver tissue samples of captive black, white, and Indian rhinos were analyzed for mineral content. Circulating mineral levels of free-ranging animals were subject to variation according to region. In free-ranging animals, high molybdenum (Mo) values compared to horse normals were striking. Captive animals displayed even higher circulating Mo concentrations. The significance of iron (Fe) overload in captive specimens of the browsing rhinos (black and Sumatran) was confirmed. Hepatic Fe levels increased in blacks with age. Although this Fe overload is suspected to be linked with diets, the data indicate that this is not due solely to an excessive dietary Fe supply. Whereas the grazing species (white and Indian) had high liver copper (Cu) levels, the browsing species had low to marginal liver Cu concentrations. Liver concentrations of K, Mg, Co, and Mo increased with age in captive black rhinos. Additional findings include high circulating Se levels in all rhino species. Future research should be directed at investigating factors leading to high Fe levels, and at investigating Cu metabolism in captive rhinoceros species.},
  author       = {Dierenfeld, Ellen S and Atkinson, Shirley and Craig, A Morrie and Walker, Karen C and Streich, W Jürgen and Clauss, Marcus},
  issn         = {0733-3188},
  journal      = {ZOO BIOLOGY},
  keywords     = {Dicerorhinus sumatrensis,EQUINE LIVER,DICEROS-BICORNIS,PLASMA-MASS SPECTROMETRY,DICERORHINUS-SUMATRENSIS,NUTRIENT COMPOSITION,CERATOTHERIUM-SIMUM,DIETARY MOLYBDENUM,CALCIUM EXCRETION,IRON-METABOLISM,COPPER-DEFICIENT RATS,mineral nutrition,rhinoceros,Rhinoceros unicornis,Ceratotherium simum,Diceros bicornis},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {51--72},
  title        = {Mineral concentrations in serum/plasma and liver tissue of captive and free-ranging rhinoceros species},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/zoo.20043},
  volume       = {24},
  year         = {2005},
}

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