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Laser teeth bleaching: evaluation of eventual side effects on enamel and the pulp and the efficiency in vitro and in vivo

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Abstract
Light and heat increase the reactivity of hydrogen peroxide. There is no evidence that light activation (power bleaching with high-intensity light) results in a more effective bleaching with a longer lasting effect with high concentrated hydrogen peroxide bleaching gels. Laser light differs from conventional light as it requires a laser-target interaction. The interaction takes place in the first instance in the bleaching gel. The second interaction has to be induced in the tooth, more specifically in the dentine. There is evidence that interaction exists with the bleaching gel: photothermal, photocatalytical, and photochemical interactions are described. The reactivity of the gel is increased by adding photocatalyst of photosensitizers. Direct and effective photobleaching, that is, a direct interaction with the colour molecules in the dentine, however, is only possible with the argon (488 and 415 nm) and KTP laser (532 nm). A number of risks have been described such as heat generation. Nd:YAG and especially high power diode lasers present a risk with intrapulpal temperature elevation up to 22∘C. Hypersensitivity is regularly encountered, being it of temporary occurrence except for a number of diode wavelengths and the Nd:YAG. The tooth surface remains intact after laser bleaching. At present, KTP laser is the most efficient dental bleaching wavelength.

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MLA
De Moor, Roeland, et al. “Laser Teeth Bleaching: Evaluation of Eventual Side Effects on Enamel and the Pulp and the Efficiency in Vitro and in Vivo.” SCIENTIFIC WORLD JOURNAL, 2015, doi:10.1155/2015/835405.
APA
De Moor, R., Verheyen, J., Verheyen, P., Diachuk, A., Meire, M., De Coster, P., … Keulemans, F. (2015). Laser teeth bleaching: evaluation of eventual side effects on enamel and the pulp and the efficiency in vitro and in vivo. SCIENTIFIC WORLD JOURNAL. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/835405
Chicago author-date
De Moor, Roeland, Jeroen Verheyen, Peter Verheyen, Andrii Diachuk, Maarten Meire, Peter De Coster, Mieke De Bruyne, and Filip Keulemans. 2015. “Laser Teeth Bleaching: Evaluation of Eventual Side Effects on Enamel and the Pulp and the Efficiency in Vitro and in Vivo.” SCIENTIFIC WORLD JOURNAL. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/835405.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
De Moor, Roeland, Jeroen Verheyen, Peter Verheyen, Andrii Diachuk, Maarten Meire, Peter De Coster, Mieke De Bruyne, and Filip Keulemans. 2015. “Laser Teeth Bleaching: Evaluation of Eventual Side Effects on Enamel and the Pulp and the Efficiency in Vitro and in Vivo.” SCIENTIFIC WORLD JOURNAL. doi:10.1155/2015/835405.
Vancouver
1.
De Moor R, Verheyen J, Verheyen P, Diachuk A, Meire M, De Coster P, et al. Laser teeth bleaching: evaluation of eventual side effects on enamel and the pulp and the efficiency in vitro and in vivo. SCIENTIFIC WORLD JOURNAL. 2015;
IEEE
[1]
R. De Moor et al., “Laser teeth bleaching: evaluation of eventual side effects on enamel and the pulp and the efficiency in vitro and in vivo,” SCIENTIFIC WORLD JOURNAL, 2015.
@article{6838514,
  abstract     = {{Light and heat increase the reactivity of hydrogen peroxide. There is no evidence that light activation (power bleaching with high-intensity light) results in a more effective bleaching with a longer lasting effect with high concentrated hydrogen peroxide bleaching gels. Laser light differs from conventional light as it requires a laser-target interaction. The interaction takes place in the first instance in the bleaching gel. The second interaction has to be induced in the tooth, more specifically in the dentine. There is evidence that interaction exists with the bleaching gel: photothermal, photocatalytical, and photochemical interactions are described. The reactivity of the gel is increased by adding photocatalyst of photosensitizers. Direct and effective photobleaching, that is, a direct interaction with the colour molecules in the dentine, however, is only possible with the argon (488 and 415 nm) and KTP laser (532 nm). A number of risks have been described such as heat generation. Nd:YAG and especially high power diode lasers present a risk with intrapulpal temperature elevation up to 22∘C. Hypersensitivity is regularly encountered, being it of temporary occurrence except for a number of diode wavelengths and the Nd:YAG. The tooth surface remains intact after laser bleaching. At present, KTP laser is the most efficient dental bleaching wavelength.}},
  articleno    = {{835405}},
  author       = {{De Moor, Roeland and Verheyen, Jeroen and Verheyen, Peter and Diachuk, Andrii and Meire, Maarten and De Coster, Peter and De Bruyne, Mieke and Keulemans, Filip}},
  issn         = {{1537-744X}},
  journal      = {{SCIENTIFIC WORLD JOURNAL}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{12}},
  title        = {{Laser teeth bleaching: evaluation of eventual side effects on enamel and the pulp and the efficiency in vitro and in vivo}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/835405}},
  year         = {{2015}},
}

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