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Abstract
The high species richness of tropical forests has long been recognized, yet there remains substantial uncertainty regarding the actual number of tropical tree species. Using a pantropical tree inventory database from closed canopy forests, consisting of 657,630 trees belonging to 11,371 species, we use a fitted value of Fisher's alpha and an approximate pantropical stem total to estimate the minimum number of tropical forest tree species to fall between similar to 40,000 and similar to 53,000, i.e., at the high end of previous estimates. Contrary to common assumption, the Indo-Pacific region was found to be as species-rich as the Neotropics, with both regions having a minimum of similar to 19,000-25,000 tree species. Continental Africa is relatively depauperate with a minimum of similar to 4,500-6,000 tree species. Very few species are shared among the African, American, and the Indo-Pacific regions. We provide a methodological framework for estimating species richness in trees that may help refine species richness estimates of tree-dependent taxa.
Keywords
pantropical, diversity estimation, ABUNDANCE DISTRIBUTIONS, GLOBAL PATTERNS, BIODIVERSITY, SAMPLE, Fisher's log series, spatial richness patterns, tropical tree species richness, PLANT DIVERSITY, RAIN-FORESTS, RICHNESS, COVERAGE, AREA

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Citation

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Chicago
Slik, JW Ferry, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Shin-Ichiro Aiba, Patricia Alvarez-Loayza, Luciana F Alves, Peter Ashton, Patricia Balvanera, et al. 2015. “An Estimate of the Number of Tropical Tree Species.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112 (24): 7472–7477.
APA
Slik, J. F., Arroyo-Rodríguez, V., Aiba, S.-I., Alvarez-Loayza, P., Alves, L. F., Ashton, P., Balvanera, P., et al. (2015). An estimate of the number of tropical tree species. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 112(24), 7472–7477.
Vancouver
1.
Slik JF, Arroyo-Rodríguez V, Aiba S-I, Alvarez-Loayza P, Alves LF, Ashton P, et al. An estimate of the number of tropical tree species. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 2015;112(24):7472–7.
MLA
Slik, JW Ferry, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Shin-Ichiro Aiba, et al. “An Estimate of the Number of Tropical Tree Species.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 112.24 (2015): 7472–7477. Print.
@article{6836379,
  abstract     = {The high species richness of tropical forests has long been recognized, yet there remains substantial uncertainty regarding the actual number of tropical tree species. Using a pantropical tree inventory database from closed canopy forests, consisting of 657,630 trees belonging to 11,371 species, we use a fitted value of Fisher's alpha and an approximate pantropical stem total to estimate the minimum number of tropical forest tree species to fall between similar to 40,000 and similar to 53,000, i.e., at the high end of previous estimates. Contrary to common assumption, the Indo-Pacific region was found to be as species-rich as the Neotropics, with both regions having a minimum of similar to 19,000-25,000 tree species. Continental Africa is relatively depauperate with a minimum of similar to 4,500-6,000 tree species. Very few species are shared among the African, American, and the Indo-Pacific regions. We provide a methodological framework for estimating species richness in trees that may help refine species richness estimates of tree-dependent taxa.},
  author       = {Slik, JW Ferry and Arroyo-Rodr{\'i}guez, V{\'i}ctor and Aiba, Shin-Ichiro and Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia and Alves, Luciana F and Ashton, Peter and Balvanera, Patricia and Bastian, Meredith L and Bellingham, Peter J and van den Berg, Eduardo and Bernacci, Luis and da Concei\c{c}{\~a}o Bispo, Polyanna and Blanc, Lilian and B{\"o}hning-Gaese, Katrin and Boeckx, Pascal and Bongers, Frans and Boyle, Brad and Bradford, Matt and Brearley, Francis Q and Breuer-Ndoundou Hockemba, Mireille and Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh and Calderado Leal Matos, Darley and Castillo-Santiago, Miguel and Catharino, Eduardo LM and Chai, Shauna-Lee and Chen, Yukai and Colwell, Robert K and Robin, Chazdon L and Clark, Connie and Clark, David B and Clark, Deborah A and Culmsee, Heike and Damas, Kipiro and Dattaraja, Handanakere S and Dauby, Gilles and Davidar, Priya and DeWalt, Saara J and Doucet, Jean-Louis and Duque, Alvaro and Durigan, Giselda and Eichhorn, Karl AO and Eisenlohr, Pedro V and Eler, Eduardo and Ewango, Corneille and Farwig, Nina and Feeley, Kenneth J and Ferreira, Leandro and Field, Richard and de Oliveira Filho, Ary T and Fletcher, Christine and Forshed, Olle and Franco, Geraldo and Fredriksson, Gabriella and Gillespie, Thomas and Gillet, Jean-Fran\c{c}ois and Amarnath, Giriraj and Griffith, Daniel M and Grogan, James and Gunatilleke, Nimal and Harris, David and Harrison, Rhett and Hector, Andy and Homeier, J{\"u}rgen and Imai, Nobuo and Itoh, Akira and Jansen, Patrick A and Joly, Carlos A and de Jong, Bernardus HJ and Kartawinata, Kuswata and Kearsley, Elizabeth and Kelly, Daniel L and Kenfack, David and Kessler, Michael and Kitayama, Kanehiro and Kooyman, Robert and Larney, Eileen and Laumonier, Yves and Laurance, Susan and Laurance, William F and Lawes, Michael J and Leao do Amaral, Ieda and Letcher, Susan G and Lindsell, Jeremy and Lu, Xinghui and Mansor, Asyraf and Marjokorpi, Antti and Martin, Emanuel H and Meilby, Henrik and Melo, Felipe PL and Metcalfe, Daniel J and Medjibe, Vincent P and Metzger, Jean Paul and Millet, Jerome and Mohandass, D and Montero, Juan C and de Morisson Valeriano, M{\'a}rcio and Mugerwa, Badru and Nagamasu, Hidetoshi and Nilus, Reuben and Ochoa-Gaona, Susana and Onrizal, Onrizal and Page, Navendu and Parolin, Pia and Parren, Marc and Parthasarathy, Narayanaswamy and Paudel, Ekananda and Permana, Andrea and Piedade, Maria TF and Pitman, Nigel CA and Poorter, Lourens and Poulsen, Axel D and Poulsen, John and Powers, Jennifer and Prasad, Rama C and Puyravaud, Jean-Philippe and Razafimahaimodison, Jean-Claude and Reitsma, Jan and dos Santos, Jo{\~a}o Roberto and Roberto Spironello, Wilson and Romero-Saltos, Hugo and Rovero, Francesco and Rozak, Andes Hamuraby and Ruokolainen, Kalle and Rutishauser, Ervan and Saiter, Felipe and Saner, Philippe and Santos, Braulio A and Santos, Fernanda and Sarker, Swapan K and Satdichanh, Manichanh and Schmitt, Christine B and Sch{\"o}ngart, Jochen and Schulze, Mark and Suganuma, Marcio S and Sheil, Douglas and da Silva Pinheiro, Eduardo and Sist, Plinio and Stevart, Tariq and Sukumar, Raman and Sun, I-Fang and Sunderand, Terry and Suresh, HS and Suzuki, Eizi and Tabarelli, Marcelo and Tang, Jangwei and Targhetta, Nat{\'a}lia and Theilade, Ida and Thomas, Duncan W and Tchouto, Peguy and Hurtado, Johanna and Valencia, Renato and van Valkenburg, Johan LCH and Van Do, Tran and Vasquez, Rodolfo and Verbeeck, Hans and Adekunle, Victor and Vieira, Simone A and Webb, Campbell O and Whitfeld, Timothy and Wich, Serge A and Williams, John and Wittmann, Florian and W{\"o}ll, Hannsjoerg and Yang, Xiaobo and Adou Yao, C Yves and Yap, Sandra L and Yoneda, Tsuyoshi and Zahawi, Rakan A and Zakaria, Rahmad and Zang, Runguo and de Assis, Rafael L and Garcia Luize, Bruno and Venticinque, Eduardo M},
  issn         = {0027-8424},
  journal      = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA},
  keyword      = {pantropical,diversity estimation,ABUNDANCE DISTRIBUTIONS,GLOBAL PATTERNS,BIODIVERSITY,SAMPLE,Fisher's log series,spatial richness patterns,tropical tree species richness,PLANT DIVERSITY,RAIN-FORESTS,RICHNESS,COVERAGE,AREA},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {24},
  pages        = {7472--7477},
  title        = {An estimate of the number of tropical tree species},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1423147112},
  volume       = {112},
  year         = {2015},
}

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