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What do we know about hydrogen-induced thermal donors in silicon?

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Abstract
The hydrogen-plasma-accelerated formation of shallow thermal donors in silicon has been studied for a wide range of doping concentration and interstitial oxygen content [O-i] by electrical and spectroscopic techniques. The plasma-hydrogenated material has been heat treated for different times in the temperature range of 275-500 degrees C. It is shown that, besides oxygen thermal donors (OTDs), hydrogen-related shallow thermal donors (STDHs) also play a crucial role in the hydrogen-assisted creation of excess carriers. The impact of different factors on the introduction rate of the shallow donors will be discussed, whereby a strong role is played by the doping concentration and type (i.e., the Fermi-level position during the thermal anneal in air). Generally, shallow donor formation is faster in p- compared to n-type Si, which is associated with the different charge state of H. From combined deep-level transient spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, it is concluded that the additional free carriers are contributed by both STDH and OTD centers, so that H not only plays a catalytic role but actively takes part in the donor formation, depending on the experimental conditions. Finally, from our data some conclusions can be made regarding the nature of the STDHs, which is still a matter of debate.
Keywords
semiconductors, silicon, DLTS, oxygen, FT-IR

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Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Simoen, E et al. “What Do We Know About Hydrogen-induced Thermal Donors in Silicon?” Journal of the Electrochemical Society 156.6 (2009): H434–H442. Print.
APA
Simoen, E, Huang, Y., Ma, Y., Lauwaert, J., Clauws, P., Rafi, J., Ulyashin, A., et al. (2009). What do we know about hydrogen-induced thermal donors in silicon? Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 156(6), H434–H442.
Chicago author-date
Simoen, E, YL Huang, Y Ma, Johan Lauwaert, Paul Clauws, JM Rafi, A Ulyashin, and C Claeys. 2009. “What Do We Know About Hydrogen-induced Thermal Donors in Silicon?” Journal of the Electrochemical Society 156 (6): H434–H442.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Simoen, E, YL Huang, Y Ma, Johan Lauwaert, Paul Clauws, JM Rafi, A Ulyashin, and C Claeys. 2009. “What Do We Know About Hydrogen-induced Thermal Donors in Silicon?” Journal of the Electrochemical Society 156 (6): H434–H442.
Vancouver
1.
Simoen E, Huang Y, Ma Y, Lauwaert J, Clauws P, Rafi J, et al. What do we know about hydrogen-induced thermal donors in silicon? Journal of the Electrochemical Society. Pennington, NJ 08534, USA: Electrochem. Soc. Inc; 2009;156(6):H434–H442.
IEEE
[1]
E. Simoen et al., “What do we know about hydrogen-induced thermal donors in silicon?,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 156, no. 6, pp. H434–H442, 2009.
@article{671117,
  abstract     = {The hydrogen-plasma-accelerated formation of shallow thermal donors in silicon has been studied for a wide range of doping concentration and interstitial oxygen content [O-i] by electrical and spectroscopic techniques. The plasma-hydrogenated material has been heat treated for different times in the temperature range of 275-500 degrees C. It is shown that, besides oxygen thermal donors (OTDs), hydrogen-related shallow thermal donors (STDHs) also play a crucial role in the hydrogen-assisted creation of excess carriers. The impact of different factors on the introduction rate of the shallow donors will be discussed, whereby a strong role is played by the doping concentration and type (i.e., the Fermi-level position during the thermal anneal in air). Generally, shallow donor formation is faster in p- compared to n-type Si, which is associated with the different charge state of H. From combined deep-level transient spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, it is concluded that the additional free carriers are contributed by both STDH and OTD centers, so that H not only plays a catalytic role but actively takes part in the donor formation, depending on the experimental conditions. Finally, from our data some conclusions can be made regarding the nature of the STDHs, which is still a matter of debate.},
  author       = {Simoen, E and Huang, YL and Ma, Y and Lauwaert, Johan and Clauws, Paul and Rafi, JM and Ulyashin, A and Claeys, C},
  issn         = {0013-4651},
  journal      = {Journal of the Electrochemical Society},
  keywords     = {semiconductors,silicon,DLTS,oxygen,FT-IR},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {H434--H442},
  publisher    = {Electrochem. Soc. Inc},
  title        = {What do we know about hydrogen-induced thermal donors in silicon?},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1149/1.3111039},
  volume       = {156},
  year         = {2009},
}

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