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Fat soluble vitamins in blood and tissues of free-ranging and captive rhinoceros

(2002) JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE DISEASES. 38(2). p.402-413
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Abstract
Several disease syndromes in captive rhinoceroses have been linked to low vitamin status. Blood samples From captive and free-ranging black (Diceros bicornis) and white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) and tissue samples of captive individuals from four rhinoceros species were analysed for vitamins A and E. Circulating vitamin A levels measured as retinol for free-ranging versus captive black and white rhinoceros were 0.04 (+/- 0.03 SD) vs. 0.08 (+/-0.08) and 0.07 (+/- 0.04) vs. 0.06 (+/-0.02) mug/ml, respectively. Circulating vitamin E levels measured as alpha-tocopherol were 0.58 (+/-0.30) vs. 0.84 (+/-0.96) and 0.62 (+/-0.48) vs. 0.77 (+/-0.32) mug/ml, respectively. In contrast to earlier findings, there was no significant difference in vitamin E concentration between captive and free-ranging black rhinoceros. When the samples of captive black rhinoceros were grouped into those taken before 1990 and after 1990, however, those collected before 1990 had significantly lower P < 0.001) vitamin E levels (0.46 +/- 0.83 mug/ml) and those collected in 1990 or later signifcantly higher (F < 0.001) vitamin E levels (1.03 +/- 1.04 mug/ml) than the captive population as a whole. This is probably due to increased dietary supplementation. There were significant differences in circulating vitamin concentrations in black rhinoceroses from different regions in the wild. Serum 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D-3 averaged 55.7 ng/ml in free-ranging rhinoceroses; no carotenoids were detected in any blood samples. Captive black and rhinoceroses appear to be adequately supplemented in vitamin A and E. Captive Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) had significantly lower vitamin A concentrations in blood (P < 0.001) and higher vitamin A concentrations in liver tissue samples (P < 0.001) than other rhinoceros species. Equine requirements are not recommended as a model for rhinoceros vitamin requirements.
Keywords
Dicerorhinus sumatrensis, Ceratotherium simum, Diceros bicornis, nutrition, retinol, rhinoceros, Rhinoceros unicornis, tocopherol, vitamin A, vitamin E, PLASMA ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL, DICEROS-BICORNIS, NUTRIENT COMPOSITION, GAMMA-TOCOPHEROL, BETA-CAROTENE, WILD ANIMALS, E-DEFICIENCY, RETINOL, SERUM, ABSORPTION

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Citation

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MLA
Clauss, Marcus et al. “Fat Soluble Vitamins in Blood and Tissues of Free-ranging and Captive Rhinoceros.” JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE DISEASES 38.2 (2002): 402–413. Print.
APA
Clauss, M., Jessup, D. A., Norkus, E. B., Chen, T. C., Holick, M. F., Streich, W. J., & Dierenfeld, E. S. (2002). Fat soluble vitamins in blood and tissues of free-ranging and captive rhinoceros. JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE DISEASES, 38(2), 402–413.
Chicago author-date
Clauss, Marcus, David A Jessup, Edward B Norkus, Tai C Chen, Michael F Holick, W Jürgen Streich, and Ellen S Dierenfeld. 2002. “Fat Soluble Vitamins in Blood and Tissues of Free-ranging and Captive Rhinoceros.” Journal of Wildlife Diseases 38 (2): 402–413.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Clauss, Marcus, David A Jessup, Edward B Norkus, Tai C Chen, Michael F Holick, W Jürgen Streich, and Ellen S Dierenfeld. 2002. “Fat Soluble Vitamins in Blood and Tissues of Free-ranging and Captive Rhinoceros.” Journal of Wildlife Diseases 38 (2): 402–413.
Vancouver
1.
Clauss M, Jessup DA, Norkus EB, Chen TC, Holick MF, Streich WJ, et al. Fat soluble vitamins in blood and tissues of free-ranging and captive rhinoceros. JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE DISEASES. 2002;38(2):402–13.
IEEE
[1]
M. Clauss et al., “Fat soluble vitamins in blood and tissues of free-ranging and captive rhinoceros,” JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE DISEASES, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 402–413, 2002.
@article{669944,
  abstract     = {Several disease syndromes in captive rhinoceroses have been linked to low vitamin status. Blood samples From captive and free-ranging black (Diceros bicornis) and white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) and tissue samples of captive individuals from four rhinoceros species were analysed for vitamins A and E. Circulating vitamin A levels measured as retinol for free-ranging versus captive black and white rhinoceros were 0.04 (+/- 0.03 SD) vs. 0.08 (+/-0.08) and 0.07 (+/- 0.04) vs. 0.06 (+/-0.02) mug/ml, respectively. Circulating vitamin E levels measured as alpha-tocopherol were 0.58 (+/-0.30) vs. 0.84 (+/-0.96) and 0.62 (+/-0.48) vs. 0.77 (+/-0.32) mug/ml, respectively. In contrast to earlier findings, there was no significant difference in vitamin E concentration between captive and free-ranging black rhinoceros. When the samples of captive black rhinoceros were grouped into those taken before 1990 and after 1990, however, those collected before 1990 had significantly lower P < 0.001) vitamin E levels (0.46 +/- 0.83 mug/ml) and those collected in 1990 or later signifcantly higher (F < 0.001) vitamin E levels (1.03 +/- 1.04 mug/ml) than the captive population as a whole. This is probably due to increased dietary supplementation. There were significant differences in circulating vitamin concentrations in black rhinoceroses from different regions in the wild. Serum 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D-3 averaged 55.7 ng/ml in free-ranging rhinoceroses; no carotenoids were detected in any blood samples. Captive black and rhinoceroses appear to be adequately supplemented in vitamin A and E. Captive Indian rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) had significantly lower vitamin A concentrations in blood (P < 0.001) and higher vitamin A concentrations in liver tissue samples (P < 0.001) than other rhinoceros species. Equine requirements are not recommended as a model for rhinoceros vitamin requirements.},
  author       = {Clauss, Marcus and Jessup, David A and Norkus, Edward B and Chen, Tai C and Holick, Michael F and Streich, W Jürgen and Dierenfeld, Ellen S},
  issn         = {0090-3558},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE DISEASES},
  keywords     = {Dicerorhinus sumatrensis,Ceratotherium simum,Diceros bicornis,nutrition,retinol,rhinoceros,Rhinoceros unicornis,tocopherol,vitamin A,vitamin E,PLASMA ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL,DICEROS-BICORNIS,NUTRIENT COMPOSITION,GAMMA-TOCOPHEROL,BETA-CAROTENE,WILD ANIMALS,E-DEFICIENCY,RETINOL,SERUM,ABSORPTION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {402--413},
  title        = {Fat soluble vitamins in blood and tissues of free-ranging and captive rhinoceros},
  url          = {http://www.jwildlifedis.org/cgi/reprint/38/2/402},
  volume       = {38},
  year         = {2002},
}

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