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Antioxidant status of faeces of captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in relation to dietary tannin supplementation

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Abstract
In context with the frequent observations of excessive iron (Fe) storage in captive black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis), it has been suggested that both an excessive dietary Fe content and a lack of dietary Fe-chelating substances, such as tannins, is the underlying cause. Therefore, studies on the effects of tannin supplementation to captive diet are warranted. Six captive rhinoceroses were fed their normal zoo diet (N), and a similar diet supplemented with either tannic acid (T, hydrolysable tannin) or quebracho (Q, condensed tannins), and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured as mmol Trolox equivalents per kg fresh faeces. The TAC values on diets N (1.24 +/- 0.39 mmol/kg fresh faeces) and T (1.34 +/- 0.33 mmol/kg fresh faeces) were similar, but significantly higher on diet Q (2.32 +/- 0.61 mmol/kg fresh faeces). In contrast to expectations, faecal TAC increased with increasing faecal Fe, possibly as a result of the fact that the faecal Fe content was positively correlated to the proportion of concentrate feeds in the diet, which also contain antioxidants, such as vitamin E, in addition to Fe. Increased antioxidant status caused by the use of tannin substances could have a beneficial effect on animal health, but if tannins should be incorporated in designed diets, other tannin sources, such as grape pomace should be tested.
Keywords
IRON-ABSORPTION, IN-VITRO, VITIS-VINIFERA, WHITE WINES, RED, SUSCEPTIBILITY, PROCYANIDINS, POMACE, ACID, FAT

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MLA
Clauss, Marcus et al. “Antioxidant Status of Faeces of Captive Black Rhinoceros (Diceros Bicornis) in Relation to Dietary Tannin Supplementation.” JOURNAL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE SERIES A-PHYSIOLOGY PATHOLOGY CLINICAL MEDICINE 53.6 (2006): 319–322. Print.
APA
Clauss, M., Kienzle, E., Pellegrini, N., Castell, J., Kienzle, E., Dierenfeld, E., Hummel, J., et al. (2006). Antioxidant status of faeces of captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in relation to dietary tannin supplementation. JOURNAL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE SERIES A-PHYSIOLOGY PATHOLOGY CLINICAL MEDICINE, 53(6), 319–322.
Chicago author-date
Clauss, Marcus, Ellen Kienzle, N Pellegrini, Johanna Castell, Ellen Kienzle, Ellen Dierenfeld, Jürgen Hummel, EJ Flach, W Jürgen Streich, and Jean-Michel Hatt. 2006. “Antioxidant Status of Faeces of Captive Black Rhinoceros (Diceros Bicornis) in Relation to Dietary Tannin Supplementation.” Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A-physiology Pathology Clinical Medicine 53 (6): 319–322.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Clauss, Marcus, Ellen Kienzle, N Pellegrini, Johanna Castell, Ellen Kienzle, Ellen Dierenfeld, Jürgen Hummel, EJ Flach, W Jürgen Streich, and Jean-Michel Hatt. 2006. “Antioxidant Status of Faeces of Captive Black Rhinoceros (Diceros Bicornis) in Relation to Dietary Tannin Supplementation.” Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A-physiology Pathology Clinical Medicine 53 (6): 319–322.
Vancouver
1.
Clauss M, Kienzle E, Pellegrini N, Castell J, Kienzle E, Dierenfeld E, et al. Antioxidant status of faeces of captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in relation to dietary tannin supplementation. JOURNAL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE SERIES A-PHYSIOLOGY PATHOLOGY CLINICAL MEDICINE. 2006;53(6):319–22.
IEEE
[1]
M. Clauss et al., “Antioxidant status of faeces of captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in relation to dietary tannin supplementation,” JOURNAL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE SERIES A-PHYSIOLOGY PATHOLOGY CLINICAL MEDICINE, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 319–322, 2006.
@article{669386,
  abstract     = {In context with the frequent observations of excessive iron (Fe) storage in captive black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis), it has been suggested that both an excessive dietary Fe content and a lack of dietary Fe-chelating substances, such as tannins, is the underlying cause. Therefore, studies on the effects of tannin supplementation to captive diet are warranted. Six captive rhinoceroses were fed their normal zoo diet (N), and a similar diet supplemented with either tannic acid (T, hydrolysable tannin) or quebracho (Q, condensed tannins), and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured as mmol Trolox equivalents per kg fresh faeces. The TAC values on diets N (1.24 +/- 0.39 mmol/kg fresh faeces) and T (1.34 +/- 0.33 mmol/kg fresh faeces) were similar, but significantly higher on diet Q (2.32 +/- 0.61 mmol/kg fresh faeces). In contrast to expectations, faecal TAC increased with increasing faecal Fe, possibly as a result of the fact that the faecal Fe content was positively correlated to the proportion of concentrate feeds in the diet, which also contain antioxidants, such as vitamin E, in addition to Fe. Increased antioxidant status caused by the use of tannin substances could have a beneficial effect on animal health, but if tannins should be incorporated in designed diets, other tannin sources, such as grape pomace should be tested.},
  author       = {Clauss, Marcus and Kienzle, Ellen and Pellegrini, N and Castell, Johanna and Kienzle, Ellen and Dierenfeld, Ellen and Hummel, Jürgen and Flach, EJ and Streich, W Jürgen and Hatt, Jean-Michel},
  issn         = {0931-184X},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE SERIES A-PHYSIOLOGY PATHOLOGY CLINICAL MEDICINE},
  keywords     = {IRON-ABSORPTION,IN-VITRO,VITIS-VINIFERA,WHITE WINES,RED,SUSCEPTIBILITY,PROCYANIDINS,POMACE,ACID,FAT},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {6},
  pages        = {319--322},
  title        = {Antioxidant status of faeces of captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in relation to dietary tannin supplementation},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0442.2006.00844.x},
  volume       = {53},
  year         = {2006},
}

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