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Physical characteristics of reticuloruminal contents of oxen in relation to forage type and time after feeding

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Abstract
The stratification of reticulorumen (RR) contents has been described in domestic ruminants, but suspected to be absent in certain wild ruminant species. To investigate how such stratification could be quantified, we tested variables indicating stratification in three oxen with rumen cannulae, fed once daily for 3 h, one of three different forages (fresh grass FG, grass hay GH, lucerne hay LH). Ingesta samples from dorsal rumen (DR), ventral rumen (VR) and reticulum (RET) were taken at 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after the last meal and analyzed for dry matter (DM) concentration, mean particle size and proportion of floating/sedimenting particles. Viscosity was measured in centrifuged RR fluid. There was no relevant variation in rumen fluid viscosity over time or with feeding regime. Dry matter content in DR was always higher than in VR or RET and increased after feeding. When LH and FG were fed, DR always contained larger particles than VR, except at 6 and 12 h of feeding GH. The proportion of floating particles was higher in DR than VR except at GH 6 h and GR between 6 and 12 h. The floating particle fraction mostly contained larger particles, except for GH 3 h in both DR and VR and for FG 3-12 h in DR. Changes in the distribution of particle size and proportion of floating particles over time comply with the theoretical course of fermentative digestion for different forages, but make these variables unreliable indicators of stratification in less controlled settings, such as investigations in wild ruminants. In contrast, viscosity of rumen fluids appears constant over time and feeding regime and might be used as a species-specific variable. The difference in DM content in DR and VR is a reliable indicator for RR contents stratification characterized by an oversaturation of the contents with fluid, leading to lower VR DM contents.

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Chicago
Hummel, Jürgen, Karl-Heinz Südekum, D Bayer, Sylvia Ortmann, W Jürgen Streich, Jean-Michel Hatt, and Marcus Clauss. 2009. “Physical Characteristics of Reticuloruminal Contents of Oxen in Relation to Forage Type and Time After Feeding.” Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 93 (2): 209–220.
APA
Hummel, J., Südekum, K.-H., Bayer, D., Ortmann, S., Streich, W. J., Hatt, J.-M., & Clauss, M. (2009). Physical characteristics of reticuloruminal contents of oxen in relation to forage type and time after feeding. JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND ANIMAL NUTRITION, 93(2), 209–220.
Vancouver
1.
Hummel J, Südekum K-H, Bayer D, Ortmann S, Streich WJ, Hatt J-M, et al. Physical characteristics of reticuloruminal contents of oxen in relation to forage type and time after feeding. JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND ANIMAL NUTRITION. 2009;93(2):209–20.
MLA
Hummel, Jürgen, Karl-Heinz Südekum, D Bayer, et al. “Physical Characteristics of Reticuloruminal Contents of Oxen in Relation to Forage Type and Time After Feeding.” JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND ANIMAL NUTRITION 93.2 (2009): 209–220. Print.
@article{668432,
  abstract     = {The stratification of reticulorumen (RR) contents has been described in domestic ruminants, but suspected to be absent in certain wild ruminant species. To investigate how such stratification could be quantified, we tested variables indicating stratification in three oxen with rumen cannulae, fed once daily for 3 h, one of three different forages (fresh grass FG, grass hay GH, lucerne hay LH). Ingesta samples from dorsal rumen (DR), ventral rumen (VR) and reticulum (RET) were taken at 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h after the last meal and analyzed for dry matter (DM) concentration, mean particle size and proportion of floating/sedimenting particles. Viscosity was measured in centrifuged RR fluid. There was no relevant variation in rumen fluid viscosity over time or with feeding regime. Dry matter content in DR was always higher than in VR or RET and increased after feeding. When LH and FG were fed, DR always contained larger particles than VR, except at 6 and 12 h of feeding GH. The proportion of floating particles was higher in DR than VR except at GH 6 h and GR between 6 and 12 h. The floating particle fraction mostly contained larger particles, except for GH 3 h in both DR and VR and for FG 3-12 h in DR. Changes in the distribution of particle size and proportion of floating particles over time comply with the theoretical course of fermentative digestion for different forages, but make these variables unreliable indicators of stratification in less controlled settings, such as investigations in wild ruminants. In contrast, viscosity of rumen fluids appears constant over time and feeding regime and might be used as a species-specific variable. The difference in DM content in DR and VR is a reliable indicator for RR contents stratification characterized by an oversaturation of the contents with fluid, leading to lower VR DM contents.},
  author       = {Hummel, J{\"u}rgen and S{\"u}dekum, Karl-Heinz and Bayer, D and Ortmann, Sylvia and Streich, W J{\"u}rgen and Hatt, Jean-Michel and Clauss, Marcus},
  issn         = {0931-2439},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY AND ANIMAL NUTRITION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {209--220},
  title        = {Physical characteristics of reticuloruminal contents of oxen in relation to forage type and time after feeding},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0.96.2008.00806.x},
  volume       = {93},
  year         = {2009},
}

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