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Allometry of visceral organs in living amniotes and its implications for sauropod dinosaurs

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Abstract
Allometric equations are often used to extrapolate traits in animals for which only body mass estimates are known, such as dinosaurs. One important decision can be whether these equations should be based on mammal, bird or reptile data. To address whether this choice will have a relevant influence on reconstructions, we compared allometric equations for birds and mammals from the literature to those for reptiles derived from both published and hitherto unpublished data. Organs studied included the heart, kidneys, liver and gut, as well as gut contents. While the available data indicate that gut content mass does not differ between the clades, the organ masses for reptiles are generally lower than those for mammals and birds. In particular, gut tissue mass is significantly lower in reptiles. When applying the results in the reconstruction of a sauropod dinosaur, the estimated volume of the coelomic cavity greatly exceeds the estimated volume of the combined organ masses, irrespective of the allometric equation used. Therefore, substantial deviation of sauropod organ allometry from that of the extant vertebrates can be allowed conceptually. Extrapolations of retention times from estimated gut contents mass and food intake do not suggest digestive constraints on sauropod dinosaur body size.
Keywords
scaling, allometry, coelomic cavity, ingesta retention, digestion, gut, DIGESTIVE-TRACT, FEEDING ECOLOGY, INGESTA PASSAGE, DIET SELECTION, FOOD-INTAKE, PHYSIOLOGY, LIZARDS, DIGESTIBILITY, CONSEQUENCES, FERMENTATION

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MLA
Franz, Ragna et al. “Allometry of Visceral Organs in Living Amniotes and Its Implications for Sauropod Dinosaurs.” PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES 276.1662 (2009): 1731–1736. Print.
APA
Franz, R., Hummel, J., Kienzle, E., Kölle, P., Gunga, H.-C., & Clauss, M. (2009). Allometry of visceral organs in living amniotes and its implications for sauropod dinosaurs. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 276(1662), 1731–1736.
Chicago author-date
Franz, Ragna, Jürgen Hummel, Ellen Kienzle, Petra Kölle, Hanns-Christian Gunga, and Marcus Clauss. 2009. “Allometry of Visceral Organs in Living Amniotes and Its Implications for Sauropod Dinosaurs.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B-biological Sciences 276 (1662): 1731–1736.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Franz, Ragna, Jürgen Hummel, Ellen Kienzle, Petra Kölle, Hanns-Christian Gunga, and Marcus Clauss. 2009. “Allometry of Visceral Organs in Living Amniotes and Its Implications for Sauropod Dinosaurs.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B-biological Sciences 276 (1662): 1731–1736.
Vancouver
1.
Franz R, Hummel J, Kienzle E, Kölle P, Gunga H-C, Clauss M. Allometry of visceral organs in living amniotes and its implications for sauropod dinosaurs. PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES. 2009;276(1662):1731–6.
IEEE
[1]
R. Franz, J. Hummel, E. Kienzle, P. Kölle, H.-C. Gunga, and M. Clauss, “Allometry of visceral organs in living amniotes and its implications for sauropod dinosaurs,” PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, vol. 276, no. 1662, pp. 1731–1736, 2009.
@article{668169,
  abstract     = {Allometric equations are often used to extrapolate traits in animals for which only body mass estimates are known, such as dinosaurs. One important decision can be whether these equations should be based on mammal, bird or reptile data. To address whether this choice will have a relevant influence on reconstructions, we compared allometric equations for birds and mammals from the literature to those for reptiles derived from both published and hitherto unpublished data. Organs studied included the heart, kidneys, liver and gut, as well as gut contents. While the available data indicate that gut content mass does not differ between the clades, the organ masses for reptiles are generally lower than those for mammals and birds. In particular, gut tissue mass is significantly lower in reptiles. When applying the results in the reconstruction of a sauropod dinosaur, the estimated volume of the coelomic cavity greatly exceeds the estimated volume of the combined organ masses, irrespective of the allometric equation used. Therefore, substantial deviation of sauropod organ allometry from that of the extant vertebrates can be allowed conceptually. Extrapolations of retention times from estimated gut contents mass and food intake do not suggest digestive constraints on sauropod dinosaur body size.},
  author       = {Franz, Ragna and Hummel, Jürgen and Kienzle, Ellen and Kölle, Petra and Gunga, Hanns-Christian and Clauss, Marcus},
  issn         = {0962-8452},
  journal      = {PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES},
  keywords     = {scaling,allometry,coelomic cavity,ingesta retention,digestion,gut,DIGESTIVE-TRACT,FEEDING ECOLOGY,INGESTA PASSAGE,DIET SELECTION,FOOD-INTAKE,PHYSIOLOGY,LIZARDS,DIGESTIBILITY,CONSEQUENCES,FERMENTATION},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1662},
  pages        = {1731--1736},
  title        = {Allometry of visceral organs in living amniotes and its implications for sauropod dinosaurs},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2008.1735},
  volume       = {276},
  year         = {2009},
}

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