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A single bioavailability model can accurately predict Ni toxicity to green microalgae in soft and hard surface waters.

(2009) WATER RESEARCH. 43(7). p.1935-1947
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Abstract
The major research questions addressed in this study were (i) whether green microalgae living in soft water operationally defined water hardness <10 mg CaCO3/L) are intrinsically more sensitive to Ni than green microalgae living in hard water (operationally defined water hardness >25 mg CaCO3/L), and (ii) whether a single bioavailability model can be used to predict the effect of water hardness on the toxicity of Ni to green microalgae in both soft and hard water. Algal growth inhibition tests were conducted with clones of 10 different species collected in soft and hard water lakes in Sweden. Soft water algae were tested in a 'soft' and a 'moderately hard' test medium (nominal water hardness = 6.25 and 16.3 mg CaCO3/L, respectively), whereas hard water algae were tested in a 'moderately hard' and a 'hard' test medium (nominal water hardness = 16.3 and 43.4 mg CaCO3/L, respectively). The results from the growth inhibition tests in the 'moderately hard' test medium revealed no significant sensitivity differences between the soft and the hard water algae used in this study. Increasing water hardness significantly reduced Ni toxicity to both soft and hard water algae. Because it has previously been demonstrated that Ca does not significantly protect the unicellular green alga Pseudokirchnerielia subcapitata against Ni toxicity, it was assumed that the protective effect of water hardness can be ascribed to Mg alone. The log K-MgBL (=5.5) was calculated to be identical for the soft and the hard water algae used in this study. A single bioavailability model can therefore be used to predict Ni toxicity to green microalgae in soft and hard surface waters as a function of water hardness.
Keywords
Water hardness, Bioavailability, Field-collected algae, Nickel, Risk assessment, Biotic ligand model, BIOTIC LIGAND MODEL, ALGA SCENEDESMUS-QUADRICAUDA, MINNOWS PIMEPHALES-PROMELAS, ACUTE COPPER TOXICITY, TROUT ONCORHYNCHUS-MYKISS, FREE-ION ACTIVITY, NICKEL TOXICITY, DAPHNIA-MAGNA, PSEUDOKIRCHNERIELLA-SUBCAPITATA, CHLORELLA-VULGARIS

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Chicago
Deleebeeck, Nele, Frederik De Laender, Victor Chepurnov, Wim Vyverman, Colin Janssen, and Karel De Schamphelaere. 2009. “A Single Bioavailability Model Can Accurately Predict Ni Toxicity to Green Microalgae in Soft and Hard Surface Waters.” Water Research 43 (7): 1935–1947.
APA
Deleebeeck, N., De Laender, F., Chepurnov, V., Vyverman, W., Janssen, C., & De Schamphelaere, K. (2009). A single bioavailability model can accurately predict Ni toxicity to green microalgae in soft and hard surface waters. WATER RESEARCH, 43(7), 1935–1947.
Vancouver
1.
Deleebeeck N, De Laender F, Chepurnov V, Vyverman W, Janssen C, De Schamphelaere K. A single bioavailability model can accurately predict Ni toxicity to green microalgae in soft and hard surface waters. WATER RESEARCH. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD; 2009;43(7):1935–47.
MLA
Deleebeeck, Nele, Frederik De Laender, Victor Chepurnov, et al. “A Single Bioavailability Model Can Accurately Predict Ni Toxicity to Green Microalgae in Soft and Hard Surface Waters.” WATER RESEARCH 43.7 (2009): 1935–1947. Print.
@article{662522,
  abstract     = {The major research questions addressed in this study were (i) whether green microalgae living in soft water operationally defined water hardness {\textlangle}10 mg CaCO3/L) are intrinsically more sensitive to Ni than green microalgae living in hard water (operationally defined water hardness {\textrangle}25 mg CaCO3/L), and (ii) whether a single bioavailability model can be used to predict the effect of water hardness on the toxicity of Ni to green microalgae in both soft and hard water. Algal growth inhibition tests were conducted with clones of 10 different species collected in soft and hard water lakes in Sweden. Soft water algae were tested in a 'soft' and a 'moderately hard' test medium (nominal water hardness = 6.25 and 16.3 mg CaCO3/L, respectively), whereas hard water algae were tested in a 'moderately hard' and a 'hard' test medium (nominal water hardness = 16.3 and 43.4 mg CaCO3/L, respectively). The results from the growth inhibition tests in the 'moderately hard' test medium revealed no significant sensitivity differences between the soft and the hard water algae used in this study. Increasing water hardness significantly reduced Ni toxicity to both soft and hard water algae. Because it has previously been demonstrated that Ca does not significantly protect the unicellular green alga Pseudokirchnerielia subcapitata against Ni toxicity, it was assumed that the protective effect of water hardness can be ascribed to Mg alone. The log K-MgBL (=5.5) was calculated to be identical for the soft and the hard water algae used in this study. A single    bioavailability model can therefore be used to predict Ni toxicity to green microalgae in soft and hard surface waters as a function of water hardness.},
  author       = {Deleebeeck, Nele and De Laender, Frederik and Chepurnov, Victor and Vyverman, Wim and Janssen, Colin and De Schamphelaere, Karel},
  issn         = {0043-1354},
  journal      = {WATER RESEARCH},
  keyword      = {Water hardness,Bioavailability,Field-collected algae,Nickel,Risk assessment,Biotic ligand model,BIOTIC LIGAND MODEL,ALGA SCENEDESMUS-QUADRICAUDA,MINNOWS PIMEPHALES-PROMELAS,ACUTE COPPER TOXICITY,TROUT ONCORHYNCHUS-MYKISS,FREE-ION ACTIVITY,NICKEL TOXICITY,DAPHNIA-MAGNA,PSEUDOKIRCHNERIELLA-SUBCAPITATA,CHLORELLA-VULGARIS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {7},
  pages        = {1935--1947},
  publisher    = {PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD},
  title        = {A single bioavailability model can accurately predict Ni toxicity to green microalgae in soft and hard surface waters.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2009.01.019},
  volume       = {43},
  year         = {2009},
}

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