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Prevalence and epidemiology of HIV type 1 drug resistance among newly diagnosed therapy-naive patients in Belgium from 2003 to 2006

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Abstract
This study is the first prospective study to assess the prevalence, epidemiology, and risk factors of HIV-1 drug resistance in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients in Belgium. In January 2003 it was initiated as part of the pan-European SPREAD program, and continued thereafter for four inclusion rounds until December 2006. Epidemiological, clinical, and behavioral data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and genotypic resistance testing was done on a sample taken within 6 months of diagnosis. Two hundred and eighty-five patients were included. The overall prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in Belgium was 9.5% (27/285, 95% CI: 6.6-13.4). Being infected in Belgium, which largely coincided with harboring a subtype B virus, was found to be significantly associated with transmission of drug resistance. The relatively high rate of baseline resistance might jeopardize the success of first line treatment as more than 1 out of 10 (30/285, 10.5%) viruses did not score as fully susceptible to one of the recommended first-line regimens, i.e., zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz. Our results support the implementation of genotypic resistance testing as a standard of care in all treatment-naive patients in Belgium.
Keywords
SYSTEM, ETHNICITY, IMPACT, ALGORITHMS, SURVEILLANCE, RECOMMENDATIONS, MUTATIONS, INFECTED PATIENTS, GENOTYPIC RESISTANCE, COST-EFFECTIVENESS

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MLA
Vercauteren, Jurgen et al. “Prevalence and Epidemiology of HIV Type 1 Drug Resistance Among Newly Diagnosed Therapy-naive Patients in Belgium from 2003 to 2006.” AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES 24.3 (2008): 355–362. Print.
APA
Vercauteren, J., Derdelinckx, I., Sasse, A., Bogaert, M., Ceunen, H., De Roo, A., De Wit, S., et al. (2008). Prevalence and epidemiology of HIV type 1 drug resistance among newly diagnosed therapy-naive patients in Belgium from 2003 to 2006. AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES, 24(3), 355–362.
Chicago author-date
Vercauteren, Jurgen, Inge Derdelinckx, Andre Sasse, Marleen Bogaert, Helga Ceunen, Ann De Roo, Stephane De Wit, et al. 2008. “Prevalence and Epidemiology of HIV Type 1 Drug Resistance Among Newly Diagnosed Therapy-naive Patients in Belgium from 2003 to 2006.” Aids Research and Human Retroviruses 24 (3): 355–362.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Vercauteren, Jurgen, Inge Derdelinckx, Andre Sasse, Marleen Bogaert, Helga Ceunen, Ann De Roo, Stephane De Wit, Koen Deforche, Fedoua Echahidi, Katrien Fransen, Jean-Christophe Goffard, Patrick Goubau, Elodie Goudeseune, Jean-Cyr Yombi, Patrick Lacor, Corinne Liesnard, Michel Moutschen, Denis Pierard, Roeland Rens, Yoeri Schrooten, Dolores Vaira, Annelies Van den Heuvel, Beatrijs Van Der Gucht, Marc Van Ranst, Eric Van Wijngaerden, Bernard Vandercam, Marc Vekemans, Chris Verhofstede, Nathan Clumeck, Anne-Mieke Vandamme, and Kristel Van Laethem. 2008. “Prevalence and Epidemiology of HIV Type 1 Drug Resistance Among Newly Diagnosed Therapy-naive Patients in Belgium from 2003 to 2006.” Aids Research and Human Retroviruses 24 (3): 355–362.
Vancouver
1.
Vercauteren J, Derdelinckx I, Sasse A, Bogaert M, Ceunen H, De Roo A, et al. Prevalence and epidemiology of HIV type 1 drug resistance among newly diagnosed therapy-naive patients in Belgium from 2003 to 2006. AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES. 140 HUGUENOT STREET, 3RD FL, NEW ROCHELLE, NY 10801 USA: MARY ANN LIEBERT INC; 2008;24(3):355–62.
IEEE
[1]
J. Vercauteren et al., “Prevalence and epidemiology of HIV type 1 drug resistance among newly diagnosed therapy-naive patients in Belgium from 2003 to 2006,” AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 355–362, 2008.
@article{605807,
  abstract     = {This study is the first prospective study to assess the prevalence, epidemiology, and risk factors of HIV-1 drug resistance in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients in Belgium. In January 2003 it was initiated as part of the pan-European SPREAD program, and continued thereafter for four inclusion rounds until December 2006. Epidemiological, clinical, and behavioral data were collected using a standardized questionnaire and genotypic resistance testing was done on a sample taken within 6 months of diagnosis. Two hundred and eighty-five patients were included. The overall prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance in Belgium was 9.5% (27/285, 95% CI: 6.6-13.4). Being infected in Belgium, which largely coincided with harboring a subtype B virus, was found to be significantly associated with transmission of drug resistance. The relatively high rate of baseline resistance might jeopardize the success of first line treatment as more than 1 out of 10 (30/285, 10.5%) viruses did not score as fully susceptible to one of the recommended first-line regimens, i.e., zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz. Our results support the implementation of genotypic resistance testing as a standard of care in all treatment-naive patients in Belgium.},
  author       = {Vercauteren, Jurgen and Derdelinckx, Inge and Sasse, Andre and Bogaert, Marleen and Ceunen, Helga and De Roo, Ann and De Wit, Stephane and Deforche, Koen and Echahidi, Fedoua and Fransen, Katrien and Goffard, Jean-Christophe and Goubau, Patrick and Goudeseune, Elodie and Yombi, Jean-Cyr and Lacor, Patrick and Liesnard, Corinne and Moutschen, Michel and Pierard, Denis and Rens, Roeland and Schrooten, Yoeri and Vaira, Dolores and Van den Heuvel, Annelies and Van Der Gucht, Beatrijs and Van Ranst, Marc and Van Wijngaerden, Eric and Vandercam, Bernard and Vekemans, Marc and Verhofstede, Chris and Clumeck, Nathan and Vandamme, Anne-Mieke and Van Laethem, Kristel},
  issn         = {0889-2229},
  journal      = {AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES},
  keywords     = {SYSTEM,ETHNICITY,IMPACT,ALGORITHMS,SURVEILLANCE,RECOMMENDATIONS,MUTATIONS,INFECTED PATIENTS,GENOTYPIC RESISTANCE,COST-EFFECTIVENESS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {355--362},
  publisher    = {MARY ANN LIEBERT INC},
  title        = {Prevalence and epidemiology of HIV type 1 drug resistance among newly diagnosed therapy-naive patients in Belgium from 2003 to 2006},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/aid.2007.0212},
  volume       = {24},
  year         = {2008},
}

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