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Effects of experimental panic on neuroimmunological functioning

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Abstract
Objective: Psychoimmunological research in panic disorder (PD) so far focussed on single time point evaluation in resting conditions. No robust evidence for changes in the immune system was found using this method. However, PD is characterized by the occurrence of unexpected panic attacks (PAs). The current research focuses on cytokine and acute phase protein (APP) levels and mitogen-induced cytokine secretion following 35% CO2 inhalation-induced panic. Methods: Eighteen PD patients and 18 matched healthy control subjects underwent both a placebo and a 35% CO2 inhalation on separate days. Blood samples for cytokine and APP determination were taken before and after the inhalation. In addition to serum determination, whole blood samples were cultured and stimulated with mitogens for assessment of the functional capacity of the immune system. Results: The 35% CO2 inhalation induced significantly higher levels of anxiety in PD patients as compared to the control subjects, but no differences in immune parameters were found, either in basal conditions or after experimental panic induction. Conclusion: In our sample we do not find any changes in serum levels or functional capacity of several immunological parameters in the experimentally provoked PAs. Similar results have been found in social phobia, whereas in other affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, immune changes are evident. Changes seem to coincide with alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Therefore, the bidirectional communication pathway between the immune system and the HPA axis might play a role in some affective disorders, but it does not specifically seem to be involved in the etiology of PD. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords
STRESS, CYTOKINES, DISORDER, ATTACKS, HPA AXIS, SOCIAL PHOBIA, NORMAL VOLUNTEERS, MAJOR DEPRESSION, CARBON-DIOXIDE, 35% CO2 URINARY FREE CORTISOL, cytokines, anxiety, acute phase proteins

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MLA
Van Duinen, Marlies A. et al. “Effects of Experimental Panic on Neuroimmunological Functioning.” JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOMATIC RESEARCH 64.3 (2008): 305–310. Print.
APA
Van Duinen, M. A., Schruers, K. J., Kenis, G. R. L., Wauters, A., Delanghe, J., Griez, E. J. L., & Maes, M. H. J. (2008). Effects of experimental panic on neuroimmunological functioning. JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOMATIC RESEARCH, 64(3), 305–310.
Chicago author-date
Van Duinen, Marlies A., Koen J. Schruers, Gunther R.L. Kenis, Annick Wauters, Joris Delanghe, Eric J.L. Griez, and Michael H.J. Maes. 2008. “Effects of Experimental Panic on Neuroimmunological Functioning.” Journal of Psychosomatic Research 64 (3): 305–310.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Van Duinen, Marlies A., Koen J. Schruers, Gunther R.L. Kenis, Annick Wauters, Joris Delanghe, Eric J.L. Griez, and Michael H.J. Maes. 2008. “Effects of Experimental Panic on Neuroimmunological Functioning.” Journal of Psychosomatic Research 64 (3): 305–310.
Vancouver
1.
Van Duinen MA, Schruers KJ, Kenis GRL, Wauters A, Delanghe J, Griez EJL, et al. Effects of experimental panic on neuroimmunological functioning. JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOMATIC RESEARCH. 2008;64(3):305–10.
IEEE
[1]
M. A. Van Duinen et al., “Effects of experimental panic on neuroimmunological functioning,” JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOMATIC RESEARCH, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 305–310, 2008.
@article{604684,
  abstract     = {Objective: Psychoimmunological research in panic disorder (PD) so far focussed on single time point evaluation in resting conditions. No robust evidence for changes in the immune system was found using this method. However, PD is characterized by the occurrence of unexpected panic attacks (PAs). The current research focuses on cytokine and acute phase protein (APP) levels and mitogen-induced cytokine secretion following 35% CO2 inhalation-induced panic. Methods: Eighteen PD patients and 18 matched healthy control subjects underwent both a placebo and a 35% CO2 inhalation on separate days. Blood samples for cytokine and APP determination were taken before and after the inhalation. In addition to serum determination, whole blood samples were cultured and stimulated with mitogens for assessment of the functional capacity of the immune system. Results: The 35% CO2 inhalation induced significantly higher levels of anxiety in PD patients as compared to the control subjects, but no differences in immune parameters were found, either in basal conditions or after experimental panic induction. Conclusion: In our sample we do not find any changes in serum levels or functional capacity of several immunological parameters in the experimentally provoked PAs. Similar results have been found in social phobia, whereas in other affective disorders such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, immune changes are evident. Changes seem to coincide with alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Therefore, the bidirectional communication pathway between the immune system and the HPA axis might play a role in some affective disorders, but it does not specifically seem to be involved in the etiology of PD. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.},
  author       = {Van Duinen, Marlies A. and Schruers, Koen J. and Kenis, Gunther R.L. and Wauters, Annick and Delanghe, Joris and Griez, Eric J.L. and Maes, Michael H.J.},
  issn         = {0022-3999},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOMATIC RESEARCH},
  keywords     = {STRESS,CYTOKINES,DISORDER,ATTACKS,HPA AXIS,SOCIAL PHOBIA,NORMAL VOLUNTEERS,MAJOR DEPRESSION,CARBON-DIOXIDE,35% CO2 URINARY FREE CORTISOL,cytokines,anxiety,acute phase proteins},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {305--310},
  title        = {Effects of experimental panic on neuroimmunological functioning},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2007.10.004},
  volume       = {64},
  year         = {2008},
}

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