Advanced search
Add to list

Crowding affects letters and symbols differently

Author
Organization
Abstract
Five experiments examined crowding effects with letter and symbol stimuli. Experiments 1-3 compared two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) identification accuracy for isolated targets presented left and right of fixation with targets flanked either by two other items of the same category or a single item situated to the right or left of targets. Interference from flankers (crowding) was significantly stronger for symbols than letters and was not influenced by visual field. Single flankers generated performance similar to the isolated targets when the stimuli were letters, but closer to the two-flanker condition when the stimuli were symbols. Experiment 4 provided a further confirmation of this general pattern using a partial-report bar probe procedure. Finally, Experiment 5 measured critical spacing for letters and symbols matched on several measures of visual complexity and found that this was greater for symbols than for letters (at a fixed horizontal eccentricity of +/-3°). The results are taken as support for the proposal that processing of strings of letters involves a specialized system developed to limit the spatial extent of crowding for letters in words.
Keywords
letter perception, orthographic processing, crowding

Citation

Please use this url to cite or link to this publication:

MLA
Grainger, Jonathan, Ilse Tydgat, and Joanna Isselé. “Crowding Affects Letters and Symbols Differently.” Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance 36.3 (2009): 673–688. Print.
APA
Grainger, J., Tydgat, I., & Isselé, J. (2009). Crowding affects letters and symbols differently. Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance, 36(3), 673–688.
Chicago author-date
Grainger, Jonathan, Ilse Tydgat, and Joanna Isselé. 2009. “Crowding Affects Letters and Symbols Differently.” Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance 36 (3): 673–688.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Grainger, Jonathan, Ilse Tydgat, and Joanna Isselé. 2009. “Crowding Affects Letters and Symbols Differently.” Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance 36 (3): 673–688.
Vancouver
1.
Grainger J, Tydgat I, Isselé J. Crowding affects letters and symbols differently. Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance. WASHINGTON ; UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: American Psychological Association.; 2009;36(3):673–88.
IEEE
[1]
J. Grainger, I. Tydgat, and J. Isselé, “Crowding affects letters and symbols differently,” Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 673–688, 2009.
@article{604484,
  abstract     = {Five experiments examined crowding effects with letter and symbol stimuli. Experiments 1-3 compared two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) identification accuracy for isolated targets presented left and right of fixation with targets flanked either by two other items of the same category or a single item situated to the right or left of targets. Interference from flankers (crowding) was significantly stronger for symbols than letters and was not influenced by visual field. Single flankers generated performance similar to the isolated targets when the stimuli were letters, but closer to the two-flanker condition when the stimuli were symbols. Experiment 4 provided a further confirmation of this general pattern using a partial-report bar probe procedure. Finally, Experiment 5 measured critical spacing for letters and symbols matched on several measures of visual complexity and found that this was greater for symbols than for letters (at a fixed horizontal eccentricity of +/-3°). The results are taken as support for the proposal that processing of strings of letters involves a specialized system developed to limit the spatial extent of crowding for letters in words.},
  author       = {Grainger, Jonathan and Tydgat, Ilse and Isselé, Joanna},
  issn         = {0096-1523},
  journal      = {Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance},
  keywords     = {letter perception,orthographic processing,crowding},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {673--688},
  publisher    = {American Psychological Association.},
  title        = {Crowding affects letters and symbols differently},
  volume       = {36},
  year         = {2009},
}

Web of Science
Times cited: