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The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organization

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Abstract
Background: The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some species. High-quality genomic data will inform key aspects of bumblebee biology, including susceptibility to implicated population viability threats. Results: We report the high quality draft genome sequences of Bombus terrestris and Bombus impatiens, two ecologically dominant bumblebees and widely utilized study species. Comparing these new genomes to those of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera and other Hymenoptera, we identify deeply conserved similarities, as well as novelties key to the biology of these organisms. Some honeybee genome features thought to underpin advanced eusociality are also present in bumblebees, indicating an earlier evolution in the bee lineage. Xenobiotic detoxification and immune genes are similarly depauperate in bumblebees and honeybees, and multiple categories of genes linked to social organization, including development and behavior, show high conservation. Key differences identified include a bias in bumblebee chemoreception towards gustation from olfaction, and striking differences in microRNAs, potentially responsible for gene regulation underlying social and other traits. Conclusions: These two bumblebee genomes provide a foundation for post-genomic research on these key pollinators and insect societies. Overall, gene repertoires suggest that the route to advanced eusociality in bees was mediated by many small changes in many genes and processes, and not by notable expansion or depauperation.
Keywords
SEX-DETERMINATION PATHWAY, BEE APIS-MELLIFERA, MULTIPLE SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT, BOMBUS-TERRESTRIS LINNAEUS, MALE COURTSHIP BEHAVIOR, HONEY-BEE, DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER, PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSES, DNA METHYLATION, HIGH-THROUGHPUT

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Citation

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Chicago
Sadd, BM, SM Barribeau, G Bloch, Dirk de Graaf, P Dearden, CG Elsik, J Gadau, et al. 2015. “The Genomes of Two Key Bumblebee Species with Primitive Eusocial Organization.” Genome Biology 16.
APA
Sadd, B., Barribeau, S., Bloch, G., de Graaf, D., Dearden, P., Elsik, C., Gadau, J., et al. (2015). The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organization. GENOME BIOLOGY, 16.
Vancouver
1.
Sadd B, Barribeau S, Bloch G, de Graaf D, Dearden P, Elsik C, et al. The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organization. GENOME BIOLOGY. 2015;16.
MLA
Sadd, BM, SM Barribeau, G Bloch, et al. “The Genomes of Two Key Bumblebee Species with Primitive Eusocial Organization.” GENOME BIOLOGY 16 (2015): n. pag. Print.
@article{5987563,
  abstract     = {Background: The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some species. High-quality genomic data will inform key aspects of bumblebee biology, including susceptibility to implicated population viability threats. 
Results: We report the high quality draft genome sequences of Bombus terrestris and Bombus impatiens, two ecologically dominant bumblebees and widely utilized study species. Comparing these new genomes to those of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera and other Hymenoptera, we identify deeply conserved similarities, as well as novelties key to the biology of these organisms. Some honeybee genome features thought to underpin advanced eusociality are also present in bumblebees, indicating an earlier evolution in the bee lineage. Xenobiotic detoxification and immune genes are similarly depauperate in bumblebees and honeybees, and multiple categories of genes linked to social organization, including development and behavior, show high conservation. Key differences identified include a bias in bumblebee chemoreception towards gustation from olfaction, and striking differences in microRNAs, potentially responsible for gene regulation underlying social and other traits. 
Conclusions: These two bumblebee genomes provide a foundation for post-genomic research on these key pollinators and insect societies. Overall, gene repertoires suggest that the route to advanced eusociality in bees was mediated by many small changes in many genes and processes, and not by notable expansion or depauperation.},
  articleno    = {76},
  author       = {Sadd, BM and Barribeau, SM and Bloch, G and de Graaf, Dirk and Dearden, P and Elsik, CG and Gadau, J and Grimmelikhuijzen, CJP and Hasselmann, M and Lozier, JD and Robertson, HM and Smagghe, Guy and Stolle, E and Van Vaerenbergh, Matthias and Waterhouse, RM and Bornberg-Bauer, E and Klasberg, S and Bennett, AK and C{\^a}mara, F and Guig{\'o}, R and Hoff, K and Mariotti, M and Munoz-Torres, M and Murphy, T and Santesmasses, D and Amdam, GV and Beckers, M and Beye, M and Biewer, M and Bitondi, MMG and Blaxter, ML and Bourke, AFG and Brown, MJF and Buechel, SD and Cameron, R and Cappelle, Kaat and Carolan, JC and Christiaens, Olivier and Ciborowski, KL and Clarke, DF and Colgan, TJ and Collins, DH and Cridge, AG and Dalmay, T and Dreier, S and du Plessis, L and Duncan, E and Erler, S and Evans, J and Falcon, T and Flores, K and Freitas, FCP and Fuchikawa, T and Gempe, T and Hartfelder, K and Hauser, F and Helbing, S and Humann, FC and Irvine, F and Jermiin, LS and Johnson, CE and Johnson, RM and Jones, AK and Kadowaki, T and Kidner, JH and Koch, V and K{\"o}hler, A and Kraus, FB and Lattorff, HMG and Leask, M and Lockett, GA and Mallon, EB and Marco Antonio, DS and Marxer, M and Meeus, Ivan and Moritz, RFA and Nair, A and N{\"a}pflin, K and Nissen, I and Niu, Jinzhi and Nunes, FMF and Oakeshott, JG and Osborne, A and Otte, M and Pinheiro, DG and Rossi{\'e}, N and Rueppell, O and Santos, CG and Schmid-Hempel, R and Schmitt, BD and Schulte, C and Sim{\~o}es, ZLP and Soares, MPM and Swevers, L and Winnebeck, EC and Wolschin, F and Yu, Na and Zdobnov, EM and Aqrawi, PK and Blankenburg, KP and Coyle, M and Francisco, L and Hernandez, AG and Holder, M and Hudson, ME and Jackson, L and Jayaseelan, J and Joshi, V and Kovar, C and Lee, SL and Mata, R and Mathew, T and Newsham, IF and Ngo, R and Okwuonu, G and Pham, C and Pu, LL and Saada, N and Santibanez, J and Simmons, D and Thornton, R and Venkat, A and Walden, KKO and Wu, YQ and Debyser, Griet and Devreese, Bart and Asher, C and Blommaert, J and Chipman, AD and Chittka, L and Fouks, B and Liu, Jisheng and O'Neill, MP and Sumner, S and Puiu, D and Qu, J and Salzberg, SL and Scherer, SE and Muzny, DM and Richards, S and Robinson, GE and Gibbs, RA and Schmid-Hempel, P and Worley, KC},
  issn         = {1465-6906},
  journal      = {GENOME BIOLOGY},
  keyword      = {SEX-DETERMINATION PATHWAY,BEE APIS-MELLIFERA,MULTIPLE SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT,BOMBUS-TERRESTRIS LINNAEUS,MALE COURTSHIP BEHAVIOR,HONEY-BEE,DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER,PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSES,DNA METHYLATION,HIGH-THROUGHPUT},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {31},
  title        = {The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organization},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-015-0623-3},
  volume       = {16},
  year         = {2015},
}

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