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Application of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae for plant-pest interaction studies

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Abstract
The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a ubiquitous polyphagous arthropod herbivore that feeds on a remarkably broad array of species, with more than 150 of economic value. It is a major pest of greenhouse crops, especially in Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae (e.g., tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, cucumbers, zucchini) and greenhouse ornamentals (e.g., roses, chrysanthemum, carnations), annual field crops (such as maize, cotton, soybean, and sugar beet), and in perennial cultures (alfalfa, strawberries, grapes, citruses, and plums)(1,2). In addition to the extreme polyphagy that makes it an important agricultural pest, T. urticae has a tendency to develop resistance to a wide array of insecticides and acaricides that are used for its control(3-7). T. urticae is an excellent experimental organism, as it has a rapid life cycle (7 days at 27 degrees C) and can be easily maintained at high density in the laboratory. Methods to assay gene expression (including in situ hybridization and antibody staining) and to inactivate expression of spider mite endogenous genes using RNA interference have been developed(8-10). Recently, the whole genome sequence of T. urticae has been reported, creating an opportunity to develop this pest herbivore as a model organism with equivalent genomic resources that already exist in some of its host plants (Arabidopsis thaliana and the tomato Solanum lycopersicum)(11). Together, these model organisms could provide insights into molecular bases of plant-pest interactions. Here, an efficient method for quick and easy collection of a large number of adult female mites, their application on an experimental plant host, and the assessment of the plant damage due to spider mite feeding are described. The presented protocol enables fast and efficient collection of hundreds of individuals at any developmental stage (eggs, larvae, nymphs, adult males, and females) that can be used for subsequent experimental application
Keywords
Issue 89, Environmental Sciences, two-spotted spider mite, plant-herbivore interaction, Tetranychus urticae, Arabidopsis thaliana, plant damage analysis, herbivory, plant pests, ARABIDOPSIS, RESISTANCE, JASMONATE, GENE, CHELICERATE, EVOLUTION, RESPONSES, DEFENSE, THALIANA

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Citation

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Chicago
Cazaux, Marc, Marie Navarro, Kristie A Bruinsma, Vladimir Zhurov, Tara Negrave, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Vojislava Grbic, and Miodrag Grbic. 2014. “Application of Two-spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus Urticae for Plant-pest Interaction Studies.” Jove-journal of Visualized Experiments (89).
APA
Cazaux, M., Navarro, M., Bruinsma, K. A., Zhurov, V., Negrave, T., Van Leeuwen, T., Grbic, V., et al. (2014). Application of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae for plant-pest interaction studies. JOVE-JOURNAL OF VISUALIZED EXPERIMENTS, (89).
Vancouver
1.
Cazaux M, Navarro M, Bruinsma KA, Zhurov V, Negrave T, Van Leeuwen T, et al. Application of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae for plant-pest interaction studies. JOVE-JOURNAL OF VISUALIZED EXPERIMENTS. 2014;(89).
MLA
Cazaux, Marc et al. “Application of Two-spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus Urticae for Plant-pest Interaction Studies.” JOVE-JOURNAL OF VISUALIZED EXPERIMENTS 89 (2014): n. pag. Print.
@article{5987406,
  abstract     = {The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a ubiquitous polyphagous arthropod herbivore that feeds on a remarkably broad array of species, with more than 150 of economic value. It is a major pest of greenhouse crops, especially in Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae (e.g., tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, cucumbers, zucchini) and greenhouse ornamentals (e.g., roses, chrysanthemum, carnations), annual field crops (such as maize, cotton, soybean, and sugar beet), and in perennial cultures (alfalfa, strawberries, grapes, citruses, and plums)(1,2). In addition to the extreme polyphagy that makes it an important agricultural pest, T. urticae has a tendency to develop resistance to a wide array of insecticides and acaricides that are used for its control(3-7). 
T. urticae is an excellent experimental organism, as it has a rapid life cycle (7 days at 27 degrees C) and can be easily maintained at high density in the laboratory. Methods to assay gene expression (including in situ hybridization and antibody staining) and to inactivate expression of spider mite endogenous genes using RNA interference have been developed(8-10). Recently, the whole genome sequence of T. urticae has been reported, creating an opportunity to develop this pest herbivore as a model organism with equivalent genomic resources that already exist in some of its host plants (Arabidopsis thaliana and the tomato Solanum lycopersicum)(11). Together, these model organisms could provide insights into molecular bases of plant-pest interactions. 
Here, an efficient method for quick and easy collection of a large number of adult female mites, their application on an experimental plant host, and the assessment of the plant damage due to spider mite feeding are described. The presented protocol enables fast and efficient collection of hundreds of individuals at any developmental stage (eggs, larvae, nymphs, adult males, and females) that can be used for subsequent experimental application},
  articleno    = {e51738},
  author       = {Cazaux, Marc and Navarro, Marie and Bruinsma, Kristie A and Zhurov, Vladimir and Negrave, Tara and Van Leeuwen, Thomas and Grbic, Vojislava and Grbic, Miodrag},
  issn         = {1940-087X},
  journal      = {JOVE-JOURNAL OF VISUALIZED EXPERIMENTS},
  keywords     = {Issue 89,Environmental Sciences,two-spotted spider mite,plant-herbivore interaction,Tetranychus urticae,Arabidopsis thaliana,plant damage analysis,herbivory,plant pests,ARABIDOPSIS,RESISTANCE,JASMONATE,GENE,CHELICERATE,EVOLUTION,RESPONSES,DEFENSE,THALIANA},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {89},
  pages        = {7},
  title        = {Application of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae for plant-pest interaction studies},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/51738},
  year         = {2014},
}

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