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Comparison of sampling procedures and microbiological and non-microbiological parameters to evaluate cleaning and disinfection in broiler houses

(2015) POULTRY SCIENCE. 94(4). p.740-749
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Abstract
Cleaning and disinfection of the broiler stable environment is an essential part of farm hygiene management. Adequate cleaning and disinfection is essential for prevention and control of animal diseases and zoonoses. The goal of this study was to shed light on the dynamics of microbiological and non-microbiological parameters during the successive steps of cleaning and disinfection and to select the most suitable sampling methods and parameters to evaluate cleaning and disinfection in broiler houses. The effectiveness of cleaning and disinfection protocols was measured in six broiler houses on two farms through visual inspection, adenosine triphosphate hygiene monitoring and microbiological analyses. Samples were taken at three time points: 1) before cleaning, 2) after cleaning, and 3) after disinfection. Before cleaning and after disinfection, air samples were taken in addition to agar contact plates and swab samples taken from various sampling points for enumeration of total aerobic flora, Enterococcus spp., and Escherichia coli and the detection of E. coli and Salmonella. After cleaning, air samples, swab samples, and adenosine triphosphate swabs were taken and a visual score was also assigned for each sampling point. The mean total aerobic flora determined by swab samples decreased from 7.7 +/- 1.4 to 5.7 +/- 1.2 log CFU/625 cm(2) after cleaning and to 4.2 +/- 1.6 log CFU/625 cm(2) after disinfection. Agar contact plates were used as the standard for evaluating cleaning and disinfection, but in this study they were found to be less suitable than swabs for enumeration. In addition to measuring total aerobic flora, Enterococcus spp. seemed to be a better hygiene indicator to evaluate cleaning and disinfection protocols than E. coli. All stables were Salmonella negative, but the detection of its indicator organism E. coli provided additional information for evaluating cleaning and disinfection protocols. Adenosine triphosphate analyses gave additional information about the hygiene level of the different sampling points.
Keywords
LAYER HOUSES, EFFICACY, SALMONELLA CONTAMINATION, broiler farm, FARMS, evaluation, disinfection, cleaning

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MLA
Luyckx, K et al. “Comparison of Sampling Procedures and Microbiological and Non-microbiological Parameters to Evaluate Cleaning and Disinfection in Broiler Houses.” POULTRY SCIENCE 94.4 (2015): 740–749. Print.
APA
Luyckx, K, Dewulf, J., Van Weyenberg, S., Herman, L., Zoons, J., Vervaet, E., Heyndrickx, M., et al. (2015). Comparison of sampling procedures and microbiological and non-microbiological parameters to evaluate cleaning and disinfection in broiler houses. POULTRY SCIENCE, 94(4), 740–749.
Chicago author-date
Luyckx, K, Jeroen Dewulf, S Van Weyenberg, L Herman, J Zoons, E Vervaet, Marc Heyndrickx, and K De Reu. 2015. “Comparison of Sampling Procedures and Microbiological and Non-microbiological Parameters to Evaluate Cleaning and Disinfection in Broiler Houses.” Poultry Science 94 (4): 740–749.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Luyckx, K, Jeroen Dewulf, S Van Weyenberg, L Herman, J Zoons, E Vervaet, Marc Heyndrickx, and K De Reu. 2015. “Comparison of Sampling Procedures and Microbiological and Non-microbiological Parameters to Evaluate Cleaning and Disinfection in Broiler Houses.” Poultry Science 94 (4): 740–749.
Vancouver
1.
Luyckx K, Dewulf J, Van Weyenberg S, Herman L, Zoons J, Vervaet E, et al. Comparison of sampling procedures and microbiological and non-microbiological parameters to evaluate cleaning and disinfection in broiler houses. POULTRY SCIENCE. 2015;94(4):740–9.
IEEE
[1]
K. Luyckx et al., “Comparison of sampling procedures and microbiological and non-microbiological parameters to evaluate cleaning and disinfection in broiler houses,” POULTRY SCIENCE, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 740–749, 2015.
@article{5975427,
  abstract     = {Cleaning and disinfection of the broiler stable environment is an essential part of farm hygiene management. Adequate cleaning and disinfection is essential for prevention and control of animal diseases and zoonoses. The goal of this study was to shed light on the dynamics of microbiological and non-microbiological parameters during the successive steps of cleaning and disinfection and to select the most suitable sampling methods and parameters to evaluate cleaning and disinfection in broiler houses. The effectiveness of cleaning and disinfection protocols was measured in six broiler houses on two farms through visual inspection, adenosine triphosphate hygiene monitoring and microbiological analyses. Samples were taken at three time points: 1) before cleaning, 2) after cleaning, and 3) after disinfection. Before cleaning and after disinfection, air samples were taken in addition to agar contact plates and swab samples taken from various sampling points for enumeration of total aerobic flora, Enterococcus spp., and Escherichia coli and the detection of E. coli and Salmonella. After cleaning, air samples, swab samples, and adenosine triphosphate swabs were taken and a visual score was also assigned for each sampling point. The mean total aerobic flora determined by swab samples decreased from 7.7 +/- 1.4 to 5.7 +/- 1.2 log CFU/625 cm(2) after cleaning and to 4.2 +/- 1.6 log CFU/625 cm(2) after disinfection. Agar contact plates were used as the standard for evaluating cleaning and disinfection, but in this study they were found to be less suitable than swabs for enumeration. In addition to measuring total aerobic flora, Enterococcus spp. seemed to be a better hygiene indicator to evaluate cleaning and disinfection protocols than E. coli. All stables were Salmonella negative, but the detection of its indicator organism E. coli provided additional information for evaluating cleaning and disinfection protocols. Adenosine triphosphate analyses gave additional information about the hygiene level of the different sampling points.},
  author       = {Luyckx, K and Dewulf, Jeroen and Van Weyenberg, S and Herman, L and Zoons, J and Vervaet, E and Heyndrickx, Marc and De Reu, K},
  issn         = {0032-5791},
  journal      = {POULTRY SCIENCE},
  keywords     = {LAYER HOUSES,EFFICACY,SALMONELLA CONTAMINATION,broiler farm,FARMS,evaluation,disinfection,cleaning},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {740--749},
  title        = {Comparison of sampling procedures and microbiological and non-microbiological parameters to evaluate cleaning and disinfection in broiler houses},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pev019},
  volume       = {94},
  year         = {2015},
}

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