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Does the consumption of moulded feed affect the excretion of anabolic-androgenic steroids in horses?

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Organization
Abstract
Background: To ensure fair competition, sport horses have to compete on their own merits, without any unfair advantage that might follow the use of drugs. Therefore, the FEI (Fédération Equestre Internationale) lists all substances that are not allowed in competition. Many steroids are part of this list as the administration of steroids increases nitrogen retention, protein synthesis and the release of erythropoietin in the kidneys, making them very popular as drugs of abuse. Hypothesis/Objectives: Some feed-related moulds can transform plant phytosterols into (anabolic) steroids. What would happen if a horse consumes feed contaminated with these moulds? Due to the strict anti-doping policies applied by the FEI, the excretion of steroids originating from the feed could have major consequences. Methods: A rapid UHPLC-MS/MS analytical method was developed and successfully and thoroughly validated. Multiple spontaneously moulded feed samples were tested for the presence of forbidden and related natural steroids (including boldenone and testosterone). The effect of the consumption of these feeds was tested by in vitro simulation of the horse’s hindgut, in static batch incubations. Samples were taken after 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72h and the incubations were executed in triplicate. The results were compared to a blank in vitro digestion and the digestion of unmoulded feed. Results: In most feed samples no steroids were detected, even when the products were moulded. However, moulded corn contained 1.8 ± 0.5 ng/g AED (4-andostradienedione, a testosterone precursor), and this concentration increased when corn was digested in vitro. The addition of phytosterols to the in vitro digestion led to a further increase of AED (up to 2.9 ± 0.4 ng/g feed). Additionally, one of the phytosterol-rich herbal supplements contained α-testosterone as well (up to 40 ng/g).
Keywords
feed, molds, phytosterols, steroids

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Chicago
Decloedt, Anneleen, Ludovic Bailly-Chouriberry, Yves Bonnaire, and Lynn Vanhaecke. 2015. “Does the Consumption of Moulded Feed Affect the Excretion of Anabolic-androgenic Steroids in Horses?” In European Equine Health and Nutrition Congress, 7th, Abstracts.
APA
Decloedt, Anneleen, Bailly-Chouriberry, L., Bonnaire, Y., & Vanhaecke, L. (2015). Does the consumption of moulded feed affect the excretion of anabolic-androgenic steroids in horses? European Equine Health and Nutrition Congress, 7th, Abstracts. Presented at the 7th European Equine Health and Nutrition congress.
Vancouver
1.
Decloedt A, Bailly-Chouriberry L, Bonnaire Y, Vanhaecke L. Does the consumption of moulded feed affect the excretion of anabolic-androgenic steroids in horses? European Equine Health and Nutrition Congress, 7th, Abstracts. 2015.
MLA
Decloedt, Anneleen, Ludovic Bailly-Chouriberry, Yves Bonnaire, et al. “Does the Consumption of Moulded Feed Affect the Excretion of Anabolic-androgenic Steroids in Horses?” European Equine Health and Nutrition Congress, 7th, Abstracts. 2015. Print.
@inproceedings{5972821,
  abstract     = {Background: To ensure fair competition, sport horses have to compete on their own merits, without any unfair advantage that might follow the use of drugs. Therefore, the FEI (F{\'e}d{\'e}ration Equestre Internationale) lists all substances that are not allowed in competition. Many steroids are part of this list as the administration of steroids increases nitrogen retention, protein synthesis and the release of erythropoietin in the kidneys, making them very popular as drugs of abuse.
Hypothesis/Objectives: Some feed-related moulds can transform plant phytosterols into (anabolic) steroids. What would happen if a horse consumes feed contaminated with these moulds? Due to the strict anti-doping policies applied by the FEI, the excretion of steroids originating from the feed could have major consequences.
Methods: A rapid UHPLC-MS/MS analytical method was developed and successfully and thoroughly validated. Multiple spontaneously moulded feed samples were tested for the presence of forbidden and related natural steroids (including boldenone and testosterone). The effect of the consumption of these feeds was tested by in vitro simulation of the horse{\textquoteright}s hindgut, in static batch incubations. Samples were taken after 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72h and the incubations were executed in triplicate. The results were compared to a blank in vitro digestion and the digestion of unmoulded feed.
Results: In most feed samples no steroids were detected, even when the products were moulded. However, moulded corn contained 1.8 {\textpm} 0.5 ng/g AED (4-andostradienedione, a testosterone precursor), and this concentration increased when corn was digested in vitro. The addition of phytosterols to the in vitro digestion led to a further increase of AED (up to 2.9 {\textpm} 0.4 ng/g feed). Additionally, one of the phytosterol-rich herbal supplements contained \ensuremath{\alpha}-testosterone as well (up to 40 ng/g).},
  author       = {Decloedt, Anneleen and Bailly-Chouriberry, Ludovic and Bonnaire, Yves and Vanhaecke, Lynn},
  booktitle    = {European Equine Health and Nutrition Congress, 7th, Abstracts},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Brugge, Belgium},
  title        = {Does the consumption of moulded feed affect the excretion of anabolic-androgenic steroids in horses?},
  year         = {2015},
}