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Disc herniations in astronauts : what causes them, and what does it tell us about herniation on earth?

(2016) EUROPEAN SPINE JOURNAL. 25(1). p.144-154
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Abstract
Recent work showed an increased risk of cervical and lumbar intervertebral disc (IVD) herniations in astronauts. The European Space Agency asked the authors to advise on the underlying pathophysiology of this increased risk, to identify predisposing factors and possible interventions and to suggest research priorities. The authors performed a narrative literature review of the possible mechanisms, and conducted a survey within the team to prioritize research and prevention approaches. Based on literature review the most likely cause for lumbar IVD herniations was concluded to be swelling of the IVD in the unloaded condition during spaceflight. For the cervical IVDs, the knowledge base is too limited to postulate a likely mechanism or recommend approaches for prevention. Basic research on the impact of (un)loading on the cervical IVD and translational research is needed. The highest priority prevention approach for the lumbar spine was post-flight care avoiding activities involving spinal flexion, followed by passive spinal loading in spaceflight and exercises to reduce IVD hyper-hydration post-flight.
Keywords
Prolapse, Work, Atrophy, Back pain, Muscle, Inactivity, Bed rest, HUMAN INTERVERTEBRAL DISC, PROLONGED BED REST, WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION, LUMBAR SPINE, IN-VIVO, NUCLEUS PULPOSUS, SIMULATED MICROGRAVITY, VERTEBRAL BODIES, ANULUS FIBROSUS, SYNTHESIS RATES

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Citation

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Chicago
Belavy, Daniel L, Michael Adams, Helena Brisby, Barbara Cagnie, Lieven Danneels, Jeremy Fairbank, Alan R Hargens, et al. 2016. “Disc Herniations in Astronauts : What Causes Them, and What Does It Tell Us About Herniation on Earth?” European Spine Journal 25 (1): 144–154.
APA
Belavy, D. L., Adams, M., Brisby, H., Cagnie, B., Danneels, L., Fairbank, J., Hargens, A. R., et al. (2016). Disc herniations in astronauts : what causes them, and what does it tell us about herniation on earth? EUROPEAN SPINE JOURNAL, 25(1), 144–154.
Vancouver
1.
Belavy DL, Adams M, Brisby H, Cagnie B, Danneels L, Fairbank J, et al. Disc herniations in astronauts : what causes them, and what does it tell us about herniation on earth? EUROPEAN SPINE JOURNAL. 2016;25(1):144–54.
MLA
Belavy, Daniel L, Michael Adams, Helena Brisby, et al. “Disc Herniations in Astronauts : What Causes Them, and What Does It Tell Us About Herniation on Earth?” EUROPEAN SPINE JOURNAL 25.1 (2016): 144–154. Print.
@article{5960918,
  abstract     = {Recent work showed an increased risk of cervical and lumbar intervertebral disc (IVD) herniations in astronauts. The European Space Agency asked the authors to advise on the underlying pathophysiology of this increased risk, to identify predisposing factors and possible interventions and to suggest research priorities. 
The authors performed a narrative literature review of the possible mechanisms, and conducted a survey within the team to prioritize research and prevention approaches. 
Based on literature review the most likely cause for lumbar IVD herniations was concluded to be swelling of the IVD in the unloaded condition during spaceflight. For the cervical IVDs, the knowledge base is too limited to postulate a likely mechanism or recommend approaches for prevention. Basic research on the impact of (un)loading on the cervical IVD and translational research is needed. The highest priority prevention approach for the lumbar spine was post-flight care avoiding activities involving spinal flexion, followed by passive spinal loading in spaceflight and exercises to reduce IVD hyper-hydration post-flight.},
  author       = {Belavy, Daniel L and Adams, Michael and Brisby, Helena and Cagnie, Barbara and Danneels, Lieven and Fairbank, Jeremy and Hargens, Alan R and Judex, Stefan and Scheuring, Richard A and Sovelius, Roope and Urban, Jill and van Dieen, Jaap H and Wilke, Hans J},
  issn         = {0940-6719},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN SPINE JOURNAL},
  keyword      = {Prolapse,Work,Atrophy,Back pain,Muscle,Inactivity,Bed rest,HUMAN INTERVERTEBRAL DISC,PROLONGED BED REST,WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION,LUMBAR SPINE,IN-VIVO,NUCLEUS PULPOSUS,SIMULATED MICROGRAVITY,VERTEBRAL BODIES,ANULUS FIBROSUS,SYNTHESIS RATES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {1},
  pages        = {144--154},
  title        = {Disc herniations in astronauts : what causes them, and what does it tell us about herniation on earth?},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-015-3917-y},
  volume       = {25},
  year         = {2016},
}

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