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Auditory and motor contributions to the timing of melodies under cognitive load

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Abstract
Current theoretical models and empirical research suggest that sensorimotor control and feedback processes may guide time perception and production. In the current study, we investigated the role of motor control and auditory feedback in an interval production task performed under heightened cognitive load. We hypothesised that general associative learning mechanisms enable the calibration of time against patterns of dynamic change in motor control processes and auditory feedback information. In Experiment 1, we applied a dual task interference paradigm consisting of a finger tapping (continuation) task, in combination with a working memory task. Participants (non-musicians) had to either perform or avoid arm movements in between successive key presses (`continuous' versus `discrete'). Auditory feedback of a key press (piano tones) either filled the complete duration of the target interval or only a small part (`long' versus `short'). Results suggested that both continuous movement control, and long piano feedback tones contributed to regular timing production. In Experiment 2, we gradually adjusted the duration of the long auditory feedback tones throughout the duration of a trial. The results showed that a gradual shortening of tones throughout time increased the rate at which participants performed tone onsets. Overall, our findings suggest that the human perceptual-motor system may be important in guiding temporal behaviour under cognitive load.
Keywords
interval production, internal model, sensorimotor adaptation, MUSIC PERFORMANCE, WORKING-MEMORY, TEMPORAL CONTROL, INTERNAL CLOCK, MOVEMENTS, FEEDBACK, SPEECH, MODELS, DISCRETE, SENSORIMOTOR ADAPTATION, associative learning

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Citation

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Chicago
Maes, Pieter-Jan, Madison Giacofci, and Marc Leman. 2015. “Auditory and Motor Contributions to the Timing of Melodies Under Cognitive Load.” Ed. Marc Ernst. Journal of Experimental Psychology-human Perception and Performance 41 (5): 1336–1352.
APA
Maes, P.-J., Giacofci, M., & Leman, M. (2015). Auditory and motor contributions to the timing of melodies under cognitive load. (Marc Ernst, Ed.)JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE, 41(5), 1336–1352.
Vancouver
1.
Maes P-J, Giacofci M, Leman M. Auditory and motor contributions to the timing of melodies under cognitive load. Ernst M, editor. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE. APA; 2015;41(5):1336–52.
MLA
Maes, Pieter-Jan, Madison Giacofci, and Marc Leman. “Auditory and Motor Contributions to the Timing of Melodies Under Cognitive Load.” Ed. Marc Ernst. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE 41.5 (2015): 1336–1352. Print.
@article{5953006,
  abstract     = {Current theoretical models and empirical research suggest that sensorimotor control and feedback processes may guide time perception and production. In the current study, we investigated the role of motor control and auditory feedback in an interval production task performed under heightened cognitive load. We hypothesised that general associative learning mechanisms enable the calibration of time against patterns of dynamic change in motor control processes and auditory feedback information. In Experiment 1, we applied a dual task interference paradigm consisting of a finger tapping (continuation) task, in combination with a working memory task. Participants (non-musicians) had to either perform or avoid arm movements in between successive key presses (`continuous' versus `discrete'). Auditory feedback of a key press (piano tones) either filled the complete duration of the target interval or only a small part (`long' versus `short'). Results suggested that both continuous movement control, and long piano feedback tones contributed to regular timing production. In Experiment 2, we gradually adjusted the duration of the long auditory feedback tones throughout the duration of a trial. The results showed that a gradual shortening of tones throughout time increased the rate at which participants performed tone onsets. Overall, our findings suggest that the human perceptual-motor system may be important in guiding temporal behaviour under cognitive load.},
  author       = {Maes, Pieter-Jan and Giacofci, Madison and Leman, Marc},
  editor       = {Ernst, Marc},
  issn         = {0096-1523},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY-HUMAN PERCEPTION AND PERFORMANCE},
  keyword      = {interval production,internal model,sensorimotor adaptation,MUSIC PERFORMANCE,WORKING-MEMORY,TEMPORAL CONTROL,INTERNAL CLOCK,MOVEMENTS,FEEDBACK,SPEECH,MODELS,DISCRETE,SENSORIMOTOR ADAPTATION,associative learning},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {1336--1352},
  publisher    = {APA},
  title        = {Auditory and motor contributions to the timing of melodies under cognitive load},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xhp0000085},
  volume       = {41},
  year         = {2015},
}

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