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Oral cleanliness and gingival health among Special Olympics athletes in Europe and Eurasia

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Abstract
Background: Special Olympics athletes, as well as the general population of people with intellectual disabilities, are expected to have poorer gingival health. The aim of the study is to explore the prevalence of gingival signs of inflammation and its relationship to oral cleanliness and age among Special Olympics athletes from Europe and Eurasia. Material and Methods: A retrospective longitudinal study was performed with data collected through standardized oral from 15.941 athletes from annual Special Olympics events held in 49 countries, from Europe and Eurasia between 2007 and 2012. The data was analysed descriptively, with One-Way ANOVA test and Chi-Square test. Results: The level of significance was predetermined at a p value < 0.05. A total of 7,754 athletes presented with gingival signs (48.64%). There were no significant differences (p= 0,095) in mean gingival signs between age groups, however the association between mouth cleaning and age, was statistically significant. Conclusions: The data suggests that there is a high prevalence of gingival signs among individuals with special needs; over 50% in more than 20 countries. Therefore, there is a serious need for education and preventive programs for the patients, their parents and caregivers.
Keywords
hygiene, disability, prevalence, Gingivitis, Special Olympics, INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY, DEVELOPMENTAL-DISABILITIES, SUBGINGIVAL MICROFLORA, PEOPLE, INDIVIDUALS, NEEDS, CARE, BELGIUM

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Chicago
Marks, Luc, Carla Fernandez, Imke Kaschke, and Steven Perlman. 2015. “Oral Cleanliness and Gingival Health Among Special Olympics Athletes in Europe and Eurasia.” Medicina Oral Patologia Oral Y Cirugia Bucal 20 (5): e591–e597.
APA
Marks, L., Fernandez, C., Kaschke, I., & Perlman, S. (2015). Oral cleanliness and gingival health among Special Olympics athletes in Europe and Eurasia. MEDICINA ORAL PATOLOGIA ORAL Y CIRUGIA BUCAL, 20(5), e591–e597.
Vancouver
1.
Marks L, Fernandez C, Kaschke I, Perlman S. Oral cleanliness and gingival health among Special Olympics athletes in Europe and Eurasia. MEDICINA ORAL PATOLOGIA ORAL Y CIRUGIA BUCAL. 2015;20(5):e591–e597.
MLA
Marks, Luc, Carla Fernandez, Imke Kaschke, et al. “Oral Cleanliness and Gingival Health Among Special Olympics Athletes in Europe and Eurasia.” MEDICINA ORAL PATOLOGIA ORAL Y CIRUGIA BUCAL 20.5 (2015): e591–e597. Print.
@article{5945974,
  abstract     = {Background: Special Olympics athletes, as well as the general population of people with intellectual disabilities, are expected to have poorer gingival health. The aim of the study is to explore the prevalence of gingival signs of inflammation and its relationship to oral cleanliness and age among Special Olympics athletes from Europe and Eurasia. 
Material and Methods: A retrospective longitudinal study was performed with data collected through standardized oral from 15.941 athletes from annual Special Olympics events held in 49 countries, from Europe and Eurasia between 2007 and 2012. The data was analysed descriptively, with One-Way ANOVA test and Chi-Square test. 
Results: The level of significance was predetermined at a p value {\textlangle} 0.05. A total of 7,754 athletes presented with gingival signs (48.64\%). There were no significant differences (p= 0,095) in mean gingival signs between age groups, however the association between mouth cleaning and age, was statistically significant. 
Conclusions: The data suggests that there is a high prevalence of gingival signs among individuals with special needs; over 50\% in more than 20 countries. Therefore, there is a serious need for education and preventive programs for the patients, their parents and caregivers.},
  author       = {Marks, Luc and Fernandez, Carla and Kaschke, Imke and Perlman, Steven},
  issn         = {1698-6946},
  journal      = {MEDICINA ORAL PATOLOGIA ORAL Y CIRUGIA BUCAL},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {e591--e597},
  title        = {Oral cleanliness and gingival health among Special Olympics athletes in Europe and Eurasia},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4317/medoral.20396},
  volume       = {20},
  year         = {2015},
}

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