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Prominent cerebral amyloid angiopathy in transgenic mice overexpressing the London mutant of human APP in neurons

(2000) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY. 157(4). p.1283-1298
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Abstract
Deposition of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) in cerebral vessel walls (cerebral amyloid angiopathy, CAA) is very frequent in Alzheimer's disease and occurs also as a sporadic disorder, Here, we describe significant CAA in addition to amyloid plaques, in aging APP/Ld transgenic mice overexpressing the London mutant of human amyloid precursor protein (APP) exclusively in neurons. The number of amyloid-bearing vessels increased with age, from similar to 10 to >50 per coronal brain section in APP/Ld transgenic mice, aged 13 to 24 months. Vascular amyloid was preferentially deposited in arterioles and ranged from small focal to large circumferential depositions. Ultrastructural analysis allowed us to identify specific features contributing to weakening of the vessel mall and aneurism formation, ie, disruption of the external elastic lamina, thinning of the internal elastic lamina, interruption of the smooth muscle layer, and loss of smooth muscle cells. Biochemically, the much lower A beta 42:A beta 40 ratio evident in vascular relative to plaque amyloid, demonstrated that in blood vessel walls A beta 40 was the more abundant amyloid peptide. The exclusive neuronal origin of transgenic APP, the high levels of A beta in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma, and the specific neuroanatomical localization of vascular amyloid strongly suggest specific drainage pathways, rather than local production or blood uptake of A beta as the primary mechanism underlying CAA, The demonstration in APP/Ld mice of rare vascular amyloid deposits that immunostained only for A beta 42, suggests that, similar to senile plaque formation, A beta 42 may be the first amyloid to be deposited in the vessel walls and that it entraps the more soluble A beta 40. Its ability to diffuse for larger distances along perivascular drainage pathways would also explain the abundance of A beta 40 in vascular amyloid. Consistent with this hypothesis, incorporation of mutant presenilin-1 in APP/Ld mice, which resulted in selectively higher levels of A beta 42, caused an increase in CAA and senile plaques. This mouse model will be useful in further elucidating the pathogenesis of CAA and Alzheimer's disease, and will allow testing of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
Keywords
ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE, SMOOTH-MUSCLE CELLS, BETA-PROTEIN, PRECURSOR PROTEIN, CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID, INTERSTITIAL FLUID, SPINAL-CORD, DUTCH TYPE, DEPOSITION, VESSELS

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Chicago
Van Dorpe, Jo, Liesbet Smeijers, Ilse Dewachter, Dieter Nuyens, Kurt Spittaels, Chris Van den Haute, Marc Mercken, et al. 2000. “Prominent Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy in Transgenic Mice Overexpressing the London Mutant of Human APP in Neurons.” American Journal of Pathology 157 (4): 1283–1298.
APA
Van Dorpe, J., Smeijers, L., Dewachter, I., Nuyens, D., Spittaels, K., Van den Haute, C., Mercken, M., et al. (2000). Prominent cerebral amyloid angiopathy in transgenic mice overexpressing the London mutant of human APP in neurons. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, 157(4), 1283–1298.
Vancouver
1.
Van Dorpe J, Smeijers L, Dewachter I, Nuyens D, Spittaels K, Van den Haute C, et al. Prominent cerebral amyloid angiopathy in transgenic mice overexpressing the London mutant of human APP in neurons. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY. 2000;157(4):1283–98.
MLA
Van Dorpe, Jo, Liesbet Smeijers, Ilse Dewachter, et al. “Prominent Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy in Transgenic Mice Overexpressing the London Mutant of Human APP in Neurons.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY 157.4 (2000): 1283–1298. Print.
@article{5940754,
  abstract     = {Deposition of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) in cerebral vessel walls (cerebral amyloid angiopathy, CAA) is very frequent in Alzheimer's disease and occurs also as a sporadic disorder, Here, we describe significant CAA in addition to amyloid plaques, in aging APP/Ld transgenic mice overexpressing the London mutant of human amyloid precursor protein (APP) exclusively in neurons. The number of amyloid-bearing vessels increased with age, from similar to 10 to {\textrangle}50 per coronal brain section in APP/Ld transgenic mice, aged 13 to 24 months. Vascular amyloid was preferentially deposited in arterioles and ranged from small focal to large circumferential depositions. Ultrastructural analysis allowed us to identify specific features contributing to weakening of the vessel mall and aneurism formation, ie, disruption of the external elastic lamina, thinning of the internal elastic lamina, interruption of the smooth muscle layer, and loss of smooth muscle cells. Biochemically, the much lower A beta 42:A beta 40 ratio evident in vascular relative to plaque amyloid, demonstrated that in blood vessel walls A beta 40 was the more abundant amyloid peptide. The exclusive neuronal origin of transgenic APP, the high levels of A beta in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma, and the specific neuroanatomical localization of vascular amyloid strongly suggest specific drainage pathways, rather than local production or blood uptake of A beta as the primary mechanism underlying CAA, The demonstration in APP/Ld mice of rare vascular amyloid deposits that immunostained only for A beta 42, suggests that, similar to senile plaque formation, A beta 42 may be the first amyloid to be deposited in the vessel walls and that it entraps the more soluble A beta 40. Its ability to diffuse for larger distances along perivascular drainage pathways would also explain the abundance of A beta 40 in vascular amyloid. Consistent with this hypothesis, incorporation of mutant presenilin-1 in APP/Ld mice, which resulted in selectively higher levels of A beta 42, caused an increase in CAA and senile plaques. This mouse model will be useful in further elucidating the pathogenesis of CAA and Alzheimer's disease, and will allow testing of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.},
  author       = {Van Dorpe, Jo and Smeijers, Liesbet and Dewachter, Ilse and Nuyens, Dieter and Spittaels, Kurt and Van den Haute, Chris and Mercken, Marc and Moechars, Dieder and Laenen, Isabelle and Kuiperi, Cuno and Bruynseels, Koen and Tesseur, Ina and Loos, Ruth and Vanderstichele, Hugo and Checler, Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric and Sciot, Raf and Van Leuven, Fred},
  issn         = {0002-9440},
  journal      = {AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {1283--1298},
  title        = {Prominent cerebral amyloid angiopathy in transgenic mice overexpressing the London mutant of human APP in neurons},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9440(10)64644-5},
  volume       = {157},
  year         = {2000},
}

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