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Combining multi-receiver electromagnetic induction and stepped frequency ground penetrating radar for industrial site investigation

Ellen Van De Vijver (UGent) , Marc Van Meirvenne (UGent) , Timothy Saey (UGent) , Samuël Delefortrie (UGent) , Philippe De Smedt (UGent) , Jan De Pue (UGent) and Piet Seuntjens (UGent)
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Abstract
The soil at industrial sites is frequently characterized by very heterogeneous properties, which are often related to physical disturbance and contamination. A conventional approach to characterize the soil, with only a limited number of invasive observations, fails to capture the full extent of soil heterogeneity. Proximal soil sensing provides efficient tools to record spatially dense soil information. Nevertheless, because the output of most sensors is affected by more than one soil property, the simultaneous characterization of different soil properties requires the use of multiple sensors. Here, we apply multi-receiver electromagnetic induction (EMI) and stepped frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR) to survey a former gasworks site in a seaport area of Belgium. We used the EMI and GPR sensors in a motorized system to obtain densely sampled measurements of apparent electrical conductivity, apparent magnetic susceptibility and contrasts in relative dielectric permittivity. Our study shows that the sensors give detailed information on the variation in these electromagnetic soil properties. Interpretation of the variation in terms of the stratification of the soil was hampered by localized anthropogenic disturbances. However, the sensors provided complementary information that enabled the identification, discrimination and accurate location of several of these localized disturbances, including underground utility services such as electric cables, buried structures such as the remains of foundations and contamination by salts. Because these represent typical targets in industrial site investigation, we conclude that multi-receiver EMI and stepped frequency GPR provide a useful set of tools to expedite the investigation of industrial sites.
Keywords
DUALEM-21S SENSORS, NUMBER, DEPTH, INFORMATION, EXPLORATION, ANOMALIES, EM38DD, PLANTS, ARRAY

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Chicago
Van De Vijver, Ellen, Marc Van Meirvenne, Timothy Saey, Samuël Delefortrie, Philippe De Smedt, Jan De Pue, and Piet Seuntjens. 2015. “Combining Multi-receiver Electromagnetic Induction and Stepped Frequency Ground Penetrating Radar for Industrial Site Investigation.” European Journal of Soil Science 66 (4): 688–698.
APA
Van De Vijver, Ellen, Van Meirvenne, M., Saey, T., Delefortrie, S., De Smedt, P., De Pue, J., & Seuntjens, P. (2015). Combining multi-receiver electromagnetic induction and stepped frequency ground penetrating radar for industrial site investigation. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, 66(4), 688–698.
Vancouver
1.
Van De Vijver E, Van Meirvenne M, Saey T, Delefortrie S, De Smedt P, De Pue J, et al. Combining multi-receiver electromagnetic induction and stepped frequency ground penetrating radar for industrial site investigation. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE. 2015;66(4):688–98.
MLA
Van De Vijver, Ellen, Marc Van Meirvenne, Timothy Saey, et al. “Combining Multi-receiver Electromagnetic Induction and Stepped Frequency Ground Penetrating Radar for Industrial Site Investigation.” EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE 66.4 (2015): 688–698. Print.
@article{5938822,
  abstract     = {The soil at industrial sites is frequently characterized by very heterogeneous properties, which are often related to physical disturbance and contamination. A conventional approach to characterize the soil, with only a limited number of invasive observations, fails to capture the full extent of soil heterogeneity. Proximal soil sensing provides efficient tools to record spatially dense soil information. Nevertheless, because the output of most sensors is affected by more than one soil property, the simultaneous characterization of different soil properties requires the use of multiple sensors. Here, we apply multi-receiver electromagnetic induction (EMI) and stepped frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR) to survey a former gasworks site in a seaport area of Belgium. We used the EMI and GPR sensors in a motorized system to obtain densely sampled measurements of apparent electrical conductivity, apparent magnetic susceptibility and contrasts in relative dielectric permittivity. Our study shows that the sensors give detailed information on the variation in these electromagnetic soil properties. Interpretation of the variation in terms of the stratification of the soil was hampered by localized anthropogenic disturbances. However, the sensors provided complementary information that enabled the identification, discrimination and accurate location of several of these localized disturbances, including underground utility services such as electric cables, buried structures such as the remains of foundations and contamination by salts. Because these represent typical targets in industrial site investigation, we conclude that multi-receiver EMI and stepped frequency GPR provide a useful set of tools to expedite the investigation of industrial sites.},
  author       = {Van De Vijver, Ellen and Van Meirvenne, Marc and Saey, Timothy and Delefortrie, Samu{\"e}l and De Smedt, Philippe and De Pue, Jan and Seuntjens, Piet},
  issn         = {1351-0754},
  journal      = {EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE},
  keyword      = {DUALEM-21S SENSORS,NUMBER,DEPTH,INFORMATION,EXPLORATION,ANOMALIES,EM38DD,PLANTS,ARRAY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {4},
  pages        = {688--698},
  title        = {Combining multi-receiver electromagnetic induction and stepped frequency ground penetrating radar for industrial site investigation},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejss.12229},
  volume       = {66},
  year         = {2015},
}

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