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Implicit attitudes towards smoking predict long-term relapse in abstinent smokers

(2015) PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY. 232(14). p.2551-2561
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Abstract
It has previously been argued that implicit attitudes toward substance-related cues drive addictive behavior. Nevertheless, it remains an open question whether behavioral markers of implicit attitude activation can be used to predict long-term relapse. The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between implicit attitudes toward smoking-related cues and long-term relapse in abstaining smokers. Implicit attitudes toward smoking-related cues were assessed by means of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the evaluative priming task (EPT). Both measures were completed by a group of smokers who volunteered to quit smoking (patient group) and a group of nonsmokers (control group). Participants in the patient group completed these measures twice: once prior to smoking cessation and once after smoking cessation. Relapse was assessed by means of short telephone survey, 6 months after completion of the second test session. EPT scores obtained prior to smoking cessation were related to long-term relapse and correlated with self-reported nicotine dependence as well as daily cigarette consumption. In contrast, none of the behavioral outcome measures were found to correlate with the IAT scores. These findings corroborate the idea that implicit attitudes toward substance-related cues are critically involved in long-term relapse. A potential explanation for the divergent findings obtained with the IAT and EPT is provided.
Keywords
ASSOCIATION TEST, WORKING-MEMORY CAPACITY, ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION, ATTENTIONAL BIAS, DRINKING BEHAVIOR, SELF-ESTEEM, RESPONSES, COGNITION, IAT, CATEGORIZATION, Implicit attitudes, Evaluative priming, Implicit association, Nicotine, Relapse, Picture-picture naming task, Extra-personal associations

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MLA
Spruyt, Adriaan, et al. “Implicit Attitudes towards Smoking Predict Long-Term Relapse in Abstinent Smokers.” PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY, vol. 232, no. 14, 2015, pp. 2551–61.
APA
Spruyt, A., Lemaigre, V., Salhi, B., Van Gucht, D., Tibboel, H., Van Bockstaele, B., … Nackaerts, K. (2015). Implicit attitudes towards smoking predict long-term relapse in abstinent smokers. PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY, 232(14), 2551–2561.
Chicago author-date
Spruyt, Adriaan, Valentine Lemaigre, Bihiyga Salhi, Dinska Van Gucht, Helen Tibboel, Bram Van Bockstaele, Jan De Houwer, Jan Van Meerbeeck, and Kristiaan Nackaerts. 2015. “Implicit Attitudes towards Smoking Predict Long-Term Relapse in Abstinent Smokers.” PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 232 (14): 2551–61.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Spruyt, Adriaan, Valentine Lemaigre, Bihiyga Salhi, Dinska Van Gucht, Helen Tibboel, Bram Van Bockstaele, Jan De Houwer, Jan Van Meerbeeck, and Kristiaan Nackaerts. 2015. “Implicit Attitudes towards Smoking Predict Long-Term Relapse in Abstinent Smokers.” PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY 232 (14): 2551–2561.
Vancouver
1.
Spruyt A, Lemaigre V, Salhi B, Van Gucht D, Tibboel H, Van Bockstaele B, et al. Implicit attitudes towards smoking predict long-term relapse in abstinent smokers. PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY. 2015;232(14):2551–61.
IEEE
[1]
A. Spruyt et al., “Implicit attitudes towards smoking predict long-term relapse in abstinent smokers,” PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY, vol. 232, no. 14, pp. 2551–2561, 2015.
@article{5934124,
  abstract     = {It has previously been argued that implicit attitudes toward substance-related cues drive addictive behavior. Nevertheless, it remains an open question whether behavioral markers of implicit attitude activation can be used to predict long-term relapse.
The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between implicit attitudes toward smoking-related cues and long-term relapse in abstaining smokers.
Implicit attitudes toward smoking-related cues were assessed by means of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the evaluative priming task (EPT). Both measures were completed by a group of smokers who volunteered to quit smoking (patient group) and a group of nonsmokers (control group). Participants in the patient group completed these measures twice: once prior to smoking cessation and once after smoking cessation. Relapse was assessed by means of short telephone survey, 6 months after completion of the second test session.
EPT scores obtained prior to smoking cessation were related to long-term relapse and correlated with self-reported nicotine dependence as well as daily cigarette consumption. In contrast, none of the behavioral outcome measures were found to correlate with the IAT scores.
These findings corroborate the idea that implicit attitudes toward substance-related cues are critically involved in long-term relapse. A potential explanation for the divergent findings obtained with the IAT and EPT is provided.},
  author       = {Spruyt, Adriaan and Lemaigre, Valentine and Salhi, Bihiyga and Van Gucht, Dinska and Tibboel, Helen and Van Bockstaele, Bram and De Houwer, Jan and Van Meerbeeck, Jan and Nackaerts, Kristiaan},
  issn         = {0033-3158},
  journal      = {PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY},
  keywords     = {ASSOCIATION TEST,WORKING-MEMORY CAPACITY,ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION,ATTENTIONAL BIAS,DRINKING BEHAVIOR,SELF-ESTEEM,RESPONSES,COGNITION,IAT,CATEGORIZATION,Implicit attitudes,Evaluative priming,Implicit association,Nicotine,Relapse,Picture-picture naming task,Extra-personal associations},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {14},
  pages        = {2551--2561},
  title        = {Implicit attitudes towards smoking predict long-term relapse in abstinent smokers},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-015-3893-2},
  volume       = {232},
  year         = {2015},
}

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