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Bacterial production of conjugated linoleic and linolenic acid in foods: a technological challenge

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Abstract
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) isomers are present in foods derived from ruminants as a result of the respective linoleic acid (LA) and -linolenic acid (LNA) metabolism by ruminal microorganisms and in animals' tissues. CLA and CLNA have isomer-specific, health-promoting properties, including anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activity, as well as the ability to reduce body fat. Besides ruminal microorganisms, such as Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, many food-grade bacteria, such as bifidobacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and propionibacteria, are able to convert LA and LNA to CLA and CLNA, respectively. Linoleate isomerase activity, responsible for this conversion, is strain-dependent and probably related to the ability of the producer strain to tolerate the toxic effects of LA and LNA. Since natural concentrations of CLA and CLNA in ruminal food products are relatively low to exert their health benefits, food-grade bacteria with linoleate isomerase activity could be used as starter or adjunct cultures to develop functional fermented dairy and meat products with increased levels of CLA and CLNA or included in fermented products as probiotic cultures. However, results obtained so far are below expectations due to technological bottlenecks. More research is needed to assess if bacterial production kinetics can be increased and can match food processing requirements.
Keywords
INDUCED OBESE MICE, FERMENTED MILK-PRODUCTS, BREVE LMC 520, BUTYRIVIBRIO-FIBRISOLVENS, PROPIONIBACTERIUM-FREUDENREICHII, PROBIOTIC BACTERIA, ANTIPROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY, HETEROLOGOUS EXPRESSION, Conjugated linoleic acid, food-grade bacteria, fermented foods, ruminal biohydrogenation, UNSATURATED FATTY-ACIDS, LACTOBACILLUS-RHAMNOSUS PL60

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Chicago
Gorissen, Lara, Frédéric Leroy, Luc De Vuyst, Stefaan De Smet, and Katleen Raes. 2015. “Bacterial Production of Conjugated Linoleic and Linolenic Acid in Foods: a Technological Challenge.” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 55 (11): 1561–1574.
APA
Gorissen, L., Leroy, F., De Vuyst, L., De Smet, S., & Raes, K. (2015). Bacterial production of conjugated linoleic and linolenic acid in foods: a technological challenge. CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION, 55(11), 1561–1574.
Vancouver
1.
Gorissen L, Leroy F, De Vuyst L, De Smet S, Raes K. Bacterial production of conjugated linoleic and linolenic acid in foods: a technological challenge. CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION. 2015;55(11):1561–74.
MLA
Gorissen, Lara, Frédéric Leroy, Luc De Vuyst, et al. “Bacterial Production of Conjugated Linoleic and Linolenic Acid in Foods: a Technological Challenge.” CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION 55.11 (2015): 1561–1574. Print.
@article{5923823,
  abstract     = {Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) isomers are present in foods derived from ruminants as a result of the respective linoleic acid (LA) and -linolenic acid (LNA) metabolism by ruminal microorganisms and in animals' tissues. CLA and CLNA have isomer-specific, health-promoting properties, including anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activity, as well as the ability to reduce body fat. Besides ruminal microorganisms, such as Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, many food-grade bacteria, such as bifidobacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and propionibacteria, are able to convert LA and LNA to CLA and CLNA, respectively. Linoleate isomerase activity, responsible for this conversion, is strain-dependent and probably related to the ability of the producer strain to tolerate the toxic effects of LA and LNA. Since natural concentrations of CLA and CLNA in ruminal food products are relatively low to exert their health benefits, food-grade bacteria with linoleate isomerase activity could be used as starter or adjunct cultures to develop functional fermented dairy and meat products with increased levels of CLA and CLNA or included in fermented products as probiotic cultures. However, results obtained so far are below expectations due to technological bottlenecks. More research is needed to assess if bacterial production kinetics can be increased and can match food processing requirements.},
  author       = {Gorissen, Lara and Leroy, Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric and De Vuyst, Luc and De Smet, Stefaan and Raes, Katleen},
  issn         = {1040-8398},
  journal      = {CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION},
  keyword      = {INDUCED OBESE MICE,FERMENTED MILK-PRODUCTS,BREVE LMC 520,BUTYRIVIBRIO-FIBRISOLVENS,PROPIONIBACTERIUM-FREUDENREICHII,PROBIOTIC BACTERIA,ANTIPROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY,HETEROLOGOUS EXPRESSION,Conjugated linoleic acid,food-grade bacteria,fermented foods,ruminal biohydrogenation,UNSATURATED FATTY-ACIDS,LACTOBACILLUS-RHAMNOSUS PL60},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {11},
  pages        = {1561--1574},
  title        = {Bacterial production of conjugated linoleic and linolenic acid in foods: a technological challenge},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2012.706243},
  volume       = {55},
  year         = {2015},
}

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