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The applicability of far-infrared fine-structure lines as star formation rate tracers over wide ranges of metallicities and galaxy types

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Abstract
Aims. We analyze the applicability of far-infrared fine-structure lines [CII] 158 mu m, [OI] 63 mu m, and [OIII] 88 mu m to reliably trace the star formation rate (SFR) in a sample of low-metallicity dwarf galaxies from the Herschel Dwarf Galaxy Survey and, furthermore, extend the analysis to a broad sample of galaxies of various types and metallicities in the literature. Methods. We study the trends and scatter in the relation between the SFR (as traced by GALEX FUV and MIPS 24 mu m) and far-infrared line emission, on spatially resolved and global galaxy scales, in dwarf galaxies. We assemble far-infrared line measurements from the literature and infer whether the far-infrared lines can probe the SFR (as traced by the total infrared luminosity) in a variety of galaxy populations. Results. In metal-poor dwarfs, the [OI](63) and [OIII](88) lines show the strongest correlation with the SFR with an uncertainty on the SFR estimates better than a factor of 2, while the link between [CII] emission and the SFR is more dispersed (uncertainty factor of 2.6). The increased scatter in the SFR-L-[CII]] relation toward low metal abundances, warm dust temperatures, and large filling factors of diffuse, highly ionized gas suggests that other cooling lines start to dominate depending on the density and ionization state of the gas. For the literature sample, we evaluate the correlations for a number of different galaxy populations. The [CII] and [OI](63) lines are considered to be reliable SFR tracers in starburst galaxies, recovering the star formation activity within an uncertainty of factor 2. For sources with composite and active galactic nucleus (AGN) classifications, all three FIR lines can recover the SFR with an uncertainty factor of 2.3. The SFR calibrations for ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) are similar to starbursts/AGNs in terms of scatter but offset from the starburst/AGN SFR relations because of line deficits relative to their total infrared luminosity. While the number of detections of the FIR fine-structure lines is still very limited at high redshift for [OI](63) and [OII](88), we provide an SFR calibration for [CII].
Keywords
galaxies: dwarf, Galaxy: abundances, galaxies: ISM, galaxies: star formation, C-II LINE, 158 MU-M, FORMATION RATE INDICATORS, COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES, INITIAL MASS FUNCTION, SPECTRAL ENERGY-DISTRIBUTIONS, DUST HEATING SOURCES, DIGITAL SKY SURVEY, LMC-N 11, INTERSTELLAR-MEDIUM

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Chicago
De Looze, Ilse, Diane Cormier, Vianney Lebouteiller, Suzanne Madden, Maarten Baes, George J Bendo, Médéric Boquien, et al. 2014. “The Applicability of Far-infrared Fine-structure Lines as Star Formation Rate Tracers over Wide Ranges of Metallicities and Galaxy Types.” Astronomy & Astrophysics 568.
APA
De Looze, Ilse, Cormier, D., Lebouteiller, V., Madden, S., Baes, M., Bendo, G. J., Boquien, M., et al. (2014). The applicability of far-infrared fine-structure lines as star formation rate tracers over wide ranges of metallicities and galaxy types. ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS, 568.
Vancouver
1.
De Looze I, Cormier D, Lebouteiller V, Madden S, Baes M, Bendo GJ, et al. The applicability of far-infrared fine-structure lines as star formation rate tracers over wide ranges of metallicities and galaxy types. ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS. 2014;568.
MLA
De Looze, Ilse, Diane Cormier, Vianney Lebouteiller, et al. “The Applicability of Far-infrared Fine-structure Lines as Star Formation Rate Tracers over Wide Ranges of Metallicities and Galaxy Types.” ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS 568 (2014): n. pag. Print.
@article{5921169,
  abstract     = {Aims. We analyze the applicability of far-infrared fine-structure lines [CII] 158 mu m, [OI] 63 mu m, and [OIII] 88 mu m to reliably trace the star formation rate (SFR) in a sample of low-metallicity dwarf galaxies from the Herschel Dwarf Galaxy Survey and, furthermore, extend the analysis to a broad sample of galaxies of various types and metallicities in the literature. 
Methods. We study the trends and scatter in the relation between the SFR (as traced by GALEX FUV and MIPS 24 mu m) and far-infrared line emission, on spatially resolved and global galaxy scales, in dwarf galaxies. We assemble far-infrared line measurements from the literature and infer whether the far-infrared lines can probe the SFR (as traced by the total infrared luminosity) in a variety of galaxy populations. 
Results. In metal-poor dwarfs, the [OI](63) and [OIII](88) lines show the strongest correlation with the SFR with an uncertainty on the SFR estimates better than a factor of 2, while the link between [CII] emission and the SFR is more dispersed (uncertainty factor of 2.6). The increased scatter in the SFR-L-[CII]] relation toward low metal abundances, warm dust temperatures, and large filling factors of diffuse, highly ionized gas suggests that other cooling lines start to dominate depending on the density and ionization state of the gas. For the literature sample, we evaluate the correlations for a number of different galaxy populations. The [CII] and [OI](63) lines are considered to be reliable SFR tracers in starburst galaxies, recovering the star formation activity within an uncertainty of factor 2. For sources with composite and active galactic nucleus (AGN) classifications, all three FIR lines can recover the SFR with an uncertainty factor of 2.3. The SFR calibrations for ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) are similar to starbursts/AGNs in terms of scatter but offset from the starburst/AGN SFR relations because of line deficits relative to their total infrared luminosity. While the number of detections of the FIR fine-structure lines is still very limited at high redshift for [OI](63) and [OII](88), we provide an SFR calibration for [CII].},
  articleno    = {A62},
  author       = {De Looze, Ilse and Cormier, Diane and Lebouteiller, Vianney and Madden, Suzanne and Baes, Maarten and Bendo, George J and Boquien, M{\'e}d{\'e}ric and Boselli, Alessandro and Clements, David L and Cortese, Luca and Cooray, Asantha and Galametz, Maud and Galliano, Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric and Gracia-Carpio, Javier and Isaak, Kate and Karczewski, Oskar \unmatched{0141} and Parkin, Tara J and Pellegrini, Eric W and R{\'e}my-Ruyer, Aur{\'e}lie and Spinoglio, Luigi and Smith, Matthew WL and Sturm, Eckhard},
  issn         = {0004-6361},
  journal      = {ASTRONOMY \& ASTROPHYSICS},
  keyword      = {galaxies: dwarf,Galaxy: abundances,galaxies: ISM,galaxies: star formation,C-II LINE,158 MU-M,FORMATION RATE INDICATORS,COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES,INITIAL MASS FUNCTION,SPECTRAL ENERGY-DISTRIBUTIONS,DUST HEATING SOURCES,DIGITAL SKY SURVEY,LMC-N 11,INTERSTELLAR-MEDIUM},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {34},
  title        = {The applicability of far-infrared fine-structure lines as star formation rate tracers over wide ranges of metallicities and galaxy types},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201322489},
  volume       = {568},
  year         = {2014},
}

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