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Distribution and fate of metals in the Montenegrin part of Lake Skadar

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Abstract
Skadar Lake, the largest lake on the Balkan Peninsula, is famous for a wide range of endemic and rare, or even endangered plant and animal species. Different anthropogenic pressures have, however, influenced the fragile equilibria of the lake ecosystem, with metal pollution as one of the primary concerns. Therefore, this study investigated spatial distribution of metal pollutants in the water and sediment phase of Skadar Lake, and anthropogenic and environmental factors affecting this distribution. A sieving analysis showed that sediment in Skadar Lake is mainly distributed in the three smallest fractions (colloid, clay and silt). Eleven metals were analyzed in the lake surface and bottom water, and only six of them were detected: potassium, magnesium, calcium, nickel, aluminum and manganese. They were all present at low concentrations. In contrast, sediments contained elevated levels of some metals with concentrations between 28.1-126.8 mg kg(-1) for Ni, 23.6-79.2 mg kg(-1) for Cr, 9.2-36.9 mg kg(-1) for Cu, 199-878 mg kg(-1) for Mn and 9.6-23.1 g kg(-1) for Fe. Nickel exceeded consensus-based guidelines for safety towards freshwater dwelling organisms. The organic matter content of the sediment fluctuated between 4.7 and 21.5 %. No correlations were found between metal concentrations, organic matter and sediment particle size fractions, suggesting that the latter are not the main factors controlling metal accumulation in Skadar Lake.
Keywords
GREECE, REGION, RIVER, OPHIOLITES, CONTAMINATION, HEAVY-METALS, Spatial distribution of metals, SEDIMENT QUALITY GUIDELINES, Metal pollution, Author Keywords:Skadar Lake, Nickel contamination

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Chicago
Vemic, Mirjana, Diederik Rousseau, Gijs Du Laing, and Piet Lens. 2014. “Distribution and Fate of Metals in the Montenegrin Part of Lake Skadar.” International Journal of Sediment Research 29 (3): 357–367.
APA
Vemic, M., Rousseau, D., Du Laing, G., & Lens, P. (2014). Distribution and fate of metals in the Montenegrin part of Lake Skadar. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SEDIMENT RESEARCH, 29(3), 357–367.
Vancouver
1.
Vemic M, Rousseau D, Du Laing G, Lens P. Distribution and fate of metals in the Montenegrin part of Lake Skadar. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SEDIMENT RESEARCH. 2014;29(3):357–67.
MLA
Vemic, Mirjana, Diederik Rousseau, Gijs Du Laing, et al. “Distribution and Fate of Metals in the Montenegrin Part of Lake Skadar.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SEDIMENT RESEARCH 29.3 (2014): 357–367. Print.
@article{5918710,
  abstract     = {Skadar Lake, the largest lake on the Balkan Peninsula, is famous for a wide range of endemic and rare, or even endangered plant and animal species. Different anthropogenic pressures have, however, influenced the fragile equilibria of the lake ecosystem, with metal pollution as one of the primary concerns. Therefore, this study investigated spatial distribution of metal pollutants in the water and sediment phase of Skadar Lake, and anthropogenic and environmental factors affecting this distribution. A sieving analysis showed that sediment in Skadar Lake is mainly distributed in the three smallest fractions (colloid, clay and silt). Eleven metals were analyzed in the lake surface and bottom water, and only six of them were detected: potassium, magnesium, calcium, nickel, aluminum and manganese. They were all present at low concentrations. In contrast, sediments contained elevated levels of some metals with concentrations between 28.1-126.8 mg kg(-1) for Ni, 23.6-79.2 mg kg(-1) for Cr, 9.2-36.9 mg kg(-1) for Cu, 199-878 mg kg(-1) for Mn and 9.6-23.1 g kg(-1) for Fe. Nickel exceeded consensus-based guidelines for safety towards freshwater dwelling organisms. The organic matter content of the sediment fluctuated between 4.7 and 21.5 \%. No correlations were found between metal concentrations, organic matter and sediment particle size fractions, suggesting that the latter are not the main factors controlling metal accumulation in Skadar Lake.},
  author       = {Vemic, Mirjana and Rousseau, Diederik and Du Laing, Gijs and Lens, Piet},
  issn         = {1001-6279},
  journal      = {INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SEDIMENT RESEARCH},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {3},
  pages        = {357--367},
  title        = {Distribution and fate of metals in the Montenegrin part of Lake Skadar},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1001-6279(14)60050-0},
  volume       = {29},
  year         = {2014},
}

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