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Characterization of two species of Trypanosomatidae from the honey bee Apis mellifera: Crithidia mellificae Langridge and McGhee, 1967 and Lotmaria passim n. gen., n. sp.

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Abstract
Trypanosomatids are increasingly recognized as prevalent in European honey bees (Apis mellifera) and by default are attributed to one recognized species, Crithidia mellificae Langridge and McGhee, 1967. We provide reference genetic and ultrastructural data for type isolates of C. mellificae (ATCC 30254 and 30862) in comparison with two recent isolates from A. mellifera (BRL and SF). Phylogenetics unambiguously identify strains BRL/SF as a novel taxonomic unit distinct from C. mellificae strains 30254/30862 and assign all four strains as lineages of a novel clade within the subfamily Leishmaniinae. In vivo analyses show strains BRL/SF preferably colonize the hindgut, lining the lumen as adherent spheroids in a manner identical to previous descriptions from C. mellificae. Microscopy images show motile forms of C. mellificae are distinct from strains BRL/SF. We propose the binomial Lotmaria passim n. gen., n. sp. for this previously undescribed taxon. Analyses of new and previously accessioned genetic data show C. mellificae is still extant in bee populations, however L. passim n. gen., n. sp. is currently the predominant trypanosomatid in A. mellifera globally. Our findings require that previous reports of C. mellificae be reconsidered and that subsequent trypanosomatid species designations from Hymenoptera provide genetic support.
Keywords
Flagellate, Leptomonas, Kinetoplastea, Protists, Systematics, Taxonomy, Ultrastructure, Apidae, COLONY COLLAPSE DISORDER, INSECT TRYPANOSOMATIDS, NOSEMA-CERANAE, DEVELOPMENTAL-STAGES, COSTA-RICA, PARASITES, KINETOPLASTEA, MICROSPORIDIA, HETEROPTERA, LEISHMANIA

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Citation

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Chicago
Schwarz, Ryan S, Gary R Bauchan, Charles A Murphy, Jorgen Ravoet, Dirk de Graaf, and Jay D Evans. 2015. “Characterization of Two Species of Trypanosomatidae from the Honey Bee Apis Mellifera: Crithidia Mellificae Langridge and McGhee, 1967 and Lotmaria Passim N. Gen., N. Sp.” Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 62 (5): 567–583.
APA
Schwarz, R. S., Bauchan, G. R., Murphy, C. A., Ravoet, J., de Graaf, D., & Evans, J. D. (2015). Characterization of two species of Trypanosomatidae from the honey bee Apis mellifera: Crithidia mellificae Langridge and McGhee, 1967 and Lotmaria passim n. gen., n. sp. JOURNAL OF EUKARYOTIC MICROBIOLOGY, 62(5), 567–583.
Vancouver
1.
Schwarz RS, Bauchan GR, Murphy CA, Ravoet J, de Graaf D, Evans JD. Characterization of two species of Trypanosomatidae from the honey bee Apis mellifera: Crithidia mellificae Langridge and McGhee, 1967 and Lotmaria passim n. gen., n. sp. JOURNAL OF EUKARYOTIC MICROBIOLOGY. 2015;62(5):567–83.
MLA
Schwarz, Ryan S, Gary R Bauchan, Charles A Murphy, et al. “Characterization of Two Species of Trypanosomatidae from the Honey Bee Apis Mellifera: Crithidia Mellificae Langridge and McGhee, 1967 and Lotmaria Passim N. Gen., N. Sp.” JOURNAL OF EUKARYOTIC MICROBIOLOGY 62.5 (2015): 567–583. Print.
@article{5895899,
  abstract     = {Trypanosomatids are increasingly recognized as prevalent in European honey bees (Apis mellifera) and by default are attributed to one recognized species, Crithidia mellificae Langridge and McGhee, 1967. We provide reference genetic and ultrastructural data for type isolates of C. mellificae (ATCC 30254 and 30862) in comparison with two recent isolates from A. mellifera (BRL and SF). Phylogenetics unambiguously identify strains BRL/SF as a novel taxonomic unit distinct from C. mellificae strains 30254/30862 and assign all four strains as lineages of a novel clade within the subfamily Leishmaniinae. In vivo analyses show strains BRL/SF preferably colonize the hindgut, lining the lumen as adherent spheroids in a manner identical to previous descriptions from C. mellificae. Microscopy images show motile forms of C. mellificae are distinct from strains BRL/SF. We propose the binomial Lotmaria passim n. gen., n. sp. for this previously undescribed taxon. Analyses of new and previously accessioned genetic data show C. mellificae is still extant in bee populations, however L. passim n. gen., n. sp. is currently the predominant trypanosomatid in A. mellifera globally. Our findings require that previous reports of C. mellificae be reconsidered and that subsequent trypanosomatid species designations from Hymenoptera provide genetic support.},
  author       = {Schwarz, Ryan S and Bauchan, Gary R and Murphy, Charles A and Ravoet, Jorgen and de Graaf, Dirk and Evans, Jay D},
  issn         = {1066-5234},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF EUKARYOTIC MICROBIOLOGY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {567--583},
  title        = {Characterization of two species of Trypanosomatidae from the honey bee Apis mellifera: Crithidia mellificae Langridge and McGhee, 1967 and Lotmaria passim n. gen., n. sp.},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jeu.12209},
  volume       = {62},
  year         = {2015},
}

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