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Long working hours and alcohol use: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data

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Abstract
Objective: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. Data sources: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. Review methods: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression. Results Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333 693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100 602 participants from nine countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1.20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours and >= 55 hours a week were 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26; adjusted difference in incidence 0.8 percentage points) and 1.12 (1.01 to 1.25; adjusted difference in incidence 0.7 percentage points), respectively, compared with working standard 35-40 hours (incidence of new onset risky alcohol use 6.2%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate. Conclusions: Individuals whose working hours exceed standard recommendations are more likely to increase their alcohol use to levels that pose a health risk.
Keywords
HEALTH BEHAVIORS, JOB STRAIN, COHORT PROFILE, WHITEHALL-II, RISK-FACTORS, LIFE-STYLE, BASE-LINE, 3-YEAR FOLLOW-UP, CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE, OVERTIME WORK

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MLA
Virtanen, Marianna et al. “Long Working Hours and Alcohol Use: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Published Studies and Unpublished Individual Participant Data.” BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL 350 (2015): n. pag. Print.
APA
Virtanen, M., Jokela, M., Nyberg, S. T., Madsen, I. E., Lallukka, T., Ahola, K., Alfredsson, L., et al. (2015). Long working hours and alcohol use: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, 350.
Chicago author-date
Virtanen, Marianna, Markus Jokela, Solja T Nyberg, Ida EH Madsen, Tea Lallukka, Kirsi Ahola, Lars Alfredsson, et al. 2015. “Long Working Hours and Alcohol Use: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Published Studies and Unpublished Individual Participant Data.” Bmj-british Medical Journal 350.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Virtanen, Marianna, Markus Jokela, Solja T Nyberg, Ida EH Madsen, Tea Lallukka, Kirsi Ahola, Lars Alfredsson, G David Batty, Jakob B Bjorner, Marianne Borritz, Hermann Burr, Annalisa Casini, Els Clays, Dirk De Bacquer, Nico Dragano, Raimund Erbel, Jane E Ferrie, Eleonor I Fransson, Mark Hamer, Katriina Heikkilä, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, France Kittel, Anders Knutsson, Markku Koskenvuo, Karl-Heinz Ladwig, Thorsten Lunau, Martin L Nielsen, Maria Nordin, Tuula Oksanen, Jan H Pejtersen, Jaana Pentti, Reiner Rugulies, Paula Salo, Jürgen Schupp, Johannes Siegrist, Archana Singh-Manoux, Andrew Steptoe, Sakari B Suominen, Töres Theorell, Jussi Vahtera, Gert G Wagner, Peter JM Westerholm, Hugo Westerlund, and Mika Kivimäki. 2015. “Long Working Hours and Alcohol Use: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Published Studies and Unpublished Individual Participant Data.” Bmj-british Medical Journal 350.
Vancouver
1.
Virtanen M, Jokela M, Nyberg ST, Madsen IE, Lallukka T, Ahola K, et al. Long working hours and alcohol use: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL. 2015;350.
IEEE
[1]
M. Virtanen et al., “Long working hours and alcohol use: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data,” BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, vol. 350, 2015.
@article{5878925,
  abstract     = {Objective: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. 
Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. 
Data sources: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. 
Review methods: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression. Results Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333 693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100 602 participants from nine countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1.20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours and >= 55 hours a week were 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26; adjusted difference in incidence 0.8 percentage points) and 1.12 (1.01 to 1.25; adjusted difference in incidence 0.7 percentage points), respectively, compared with working standard 35-40 hours (incidence of new onset risky alcohol use 6.2%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate. 
Conclusions: Individuals whose working hours exceed standard recommendations are more likely to increase their alcohol use to levels that pose a health risk.},
  articleno    = {g7772},
  author       = {Virtanen, Marianna and Jokela, Markus and Nyberg, Solja T and Madsen, Ida EH and Lallukka, Tea and Ahola, Kirsi and Alfredsson, Lars and Batty, G David and Bjorner, Jakob B and Borritz, Marianne and Burr, Hermann and Casini, Annalisa and Clays, Els and De Bacquer, Dirk and Dragano, Nico and Erbel, Raimund and Ferrie, Jane E and Fransson, Eleonor I and Hamer, Mark and Heikkilä, Katriina and Jöckel, Karl-Heinz and Kittel, France and Knutsson, Anders and Koskenvuo, Markku and Ladwig, Karl-Heinz and Lunau, Thorsten and Nielsen, Martin L and Nordin, Maria and Oksanen, Tuula and Pejtersen, Jan H and Pentti, Jaana and Rugulies, Reiner and Salo, Paula and Schupp, Jürgen and Siegrist, Johannes and Singh-Manoux, Archana and Steptoe, Andrew and Suominen, Sakari B and Theorell, Töres and Vahtera, Jussi and Wagner, Gert G and Westerholm, Peter JM and Westerlund, Hugo and Kivimäki, Mika},
  issn         = {1756-1833},
  journal      = {BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {HEALTH BEHAVIORS,JOB STRAIN,COHORT PROFILE,WHITEHALL-II,RISK-FACTORS,LIFE-STYLE,BASE-LINE,3-YEAR FOLLOW-UP,CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE,OVERTIME WORK},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {14},
  title        = {Long working hours and alcohol use: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g7772},
  volume       = {350},
  year         = {2015},
}

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