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Axial osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones and desmitis of the intersesamoidean ligament in the hindlimb of Friesian horses : review of 12 cases (2002-2012) and post-mortem analysis of the bone-ligament interface

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Abstract
Background: Axial osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones and desmitis of the intersesamoidean ligament has been described in Friesian horses as well as in other breeds. The objectives of this study were to review the outcome of clinical cases of this disease in Friesian horses and analyse the pathology of the bone-ligament interface. Case records of Friesian horses diagnosed with axial osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones and desmitis of the intersesamoidean ligament in the period 2002-2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Post-mortem examination was performed on horses that were euthanized (n = 3) and included macroscopic necropsy (n = 3), high-field (9.4 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging (n = 1) and histopathology (n = 2). Results: Twelve horses were included, aged 6.8 +/- 2.7 years. The hindlimb was involved in all cases. Lameness was acute in onset and severe, with a mean duration of 1.9 +/- 1.0 months. Three horses were euthanized after diagnosis; 9 horses underwent treatment. Two horses (22%) became sound for light riding purposes, 2 horses (22%) became pasture sound (comfortable at pasture, but not suitable for riding), 5 horses (56%) remained lame. In addition to bone resorption at the proximo-axial margin of the proximal sesamoid bones, magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology showed osteoporosis of the peripheral compact bone and spongious bone of the proximal sesamoid bones and chronic inflammation of the intersesamoidean ligament. Conclusions: Axial osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones and desmitis of the intersesamoidean ligament in the hindlimb of Friesian horses carries a poor prognosis. Pathological characterization (inflammation, proximo-axial bone resorption and remodelling of the peripheral compact bone and spongious bone of the proximal sesamoid bones) may help in unravelling the aetiology of this disease.
Keywords
Clinical findings, Hindlimb lameness, Diagnostic imaging, Follow-up, Magnetic resonance imaging, Necropsy, Histopathology, BORDER, OSTEOMYELITIS

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MLA
Brommer, Harold et al. “Axial Osteitis of the Proximal Sesamoid Bones and Desmitis of the Intersesamoidean Ligament in the Hindlimb of Friesian Horses : Review of 12 Cases (2002-2012) and Post-mortem Analysis of the Bone-ligament Interface.” BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH 10 (2014): n. pag. Print.
APA
Brommer, H., Voermans, M., Veraa, S., van den Belt, A. J., van der Toorn, A., Ploeg, M., Grone, A., et al. (2014). Axial osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones and desmitis of the intersesamoidean ligament in the hindlimb of Friesian horses : review of 12 cases (2002-2012) and post-mortem analysis of the bone-ligament interface. BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH, 10.
Chicago author-date
Brommer, Harold, Margreet Voermans, Stefanie Veraa, Antoon JM van den Belt, Annette van der Toorn, Margreet Ploeg, Andrea Grone, and Willem Back. 2014. “Axial Osteitis of the Proximal Sesamoid Bones and Desmitis of the Intersesamoidean Ligament in the Hindlimb of Friesian Horses : Review of 12 Cases (2002-2012) and Post-mortem Analysis of the Bone-ligament Interface.” Bmc Veterinary Research 10.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Brommer, Harold, Margreet Voermans, Stefanie Veraa, Antoon JM van den Belt, Annette van der Toorn, Margreet Ploeg, Andrea Grone, and Willem Back. 2014. “Axial Osteitis of the Proximal Sesamoid Bones and Desmitis of the Intersesamoidean Ligament in the Hindlimb of Friesian Horses : Review of 12 Cases (2002-2012) and Post-mortem Analysis of the Bone-ligament Interface.” Bmc Veterinary Research 10.
Vancouver
1.
Brommer H, Voermans M, Veraa S, van den Belt AJ, van der Toorn A, Ploeg M, et al. Axial osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones and desmitis of the intersesamoidean ligament in the hindlimb of Friesian horses : review of 12 cases (2002-2012) and post-mortem analysis of the bone-ligament interface. BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH. 2014;10.
IEEE
[1]
H. Brommer et al., “Axial osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones and desmitis of the intersesamoidean ligament in the hindlimb of Friesian horses : review of 12 cases (2002-2012) and post-mortem analysis of the bone-ligament interface,” BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH, vol. 10, 2014.
@article{5869745,
  abstract     = {Background: Axial osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones and desmitis of the intersesamoidean ligament has been described in Friesian horses as well as in other breeds. The objectives of this study were to review the outcome of clinical cases of this disease in Friesian horses and analyse the pathology of the bone-ligament interface. Case records of Friesian horses diagnosed with axial osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones and desmitis of the intersesamoidean ligament in the period 2002-2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Post-mortem examination was performed on horses that were euthanized (n = 3) and included macroscopic necropsy (n = 3), high-field (9.4 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging (n = 1) and histopathology (n = 2). 
Results: Twelve horses were included, aged 6.8 +/- 2.7 years. The hindlimb was involved in all cases. Lameness was acute in onset and severe, with a mean duration of 1.9 +/- 1.0 months. Three horses were euthanized after diagnosis; 9 horses underwent treatment. Two horses (22%) became sound for light riding purposes, 2 horses (22%) became pasture sound (comfortable at pasture, but not suitable for riding), 5 horses (56%) remained lame. In addition to bone resorption at the proximo-axial margin of the proximal sesamoid bones, magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology showed osteoporosis of the peripheral compact bone and spongious bone of the proximal sesamoid bones and chronic inflammation of the intersesamoidean ligament. 
Conclusions: Axial osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones and desmitis of the intersesamoidean ligament in the hindlimb of Friesian horses carries a poor prognosis. Pathological characterization (inflammation, proximo-axial bone resorption and remodelling of the peripheral compact bone and spongious bone of the proximal sesamoid bones) may help in unravelling the aetiology of this disease.},
  articleno    = {272},
  author       = {Brommer, Harold and Voermans, Margreet and Veraa, Stefanie and van den Belt, Antoon JM and van der Toorn, Annette and Ploeg, Margreet and Grone, Andrea and Back, Willem},
  issn         = {1746-6148},
  journal      = {BMC VETERINARY RESEARCH},
  keywords     = {Clinical findings,Hindlimb lameness,Diagnostic imaging,Follow-up,Magnetic resonance imaging,Necropsy,Histopathology,BORDER,OSTEOMYELITIS},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {11},
  title        = {Axial osteitis of the proximal sesamoid bones and desmitis of the intersesamoidean ligament in the hindlimb of Friesian horses : review of 12 cases (2002-2012) and post-mortem analysis of the bone-ligament interface},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-014-0272-x},
  volume       = {10},
  year         = {2014},
}

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