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New insights into the innervation of the levator ani muscle

Wouter Willaert (UGent) , Dirk Van de Putte (UGent) , Katrien Van Renterghem (UGent) , Yves Van Nieuwenhove (UGent) , Piet Pattyn (UGent) and Wim Ceelen (UGent)
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Abstract
Introduction: There is still controversy about the innervation of the levator ani muscle (LAM). We investigated whether recent analysis yielded complete consensus among experts. Methods: An extensive search of the current literature was performed. Results: In the past, the pudendal nerve (PN) was considered as the sole nerve innervating the LAM. However, several studies reported no contribution of the PN to the LAM innervation but emphasized the existence of the levator ani nerve (LAN) as a separate nerve branching directly from the sacral plexus and running on the superior surface of the pelvic floor to the LAM. This theory is in contrast with several cadaver studies which reported contributions of branches of the PN to the innervation of the LAM. A recent study in human foetuses confirms that the LAM has a dual somatic innervation in all cases but the contribution of the LAN to the innervation of the LAM is greater than that of the PN. The PN runs inferior to the pelvic floor muscles and its contributions to the innervation of the LAM are variable in both individuals and between both sides of the same pelvis. Furthermore, a communicating branch between the LAN and the PN was found in 56% of the specimens. Nevertheless, recently, authors confirm dual LAM innervation in 58.8% of cases but demonstrate exclusive LAM innervation from the PN or LAN in 23.5% and 5.9% of cases, respectively. Conclusion: Although studies confirm dual somatic innervation of the LAM exceptions in its neuronal supply exist.

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MLA
WILLAERT, WOUTER, DIRK VAN DE PUTTE, KATRIEN VAN RENTERGHEM, et al. “New Insights into the Innervation of the Levator Ani Muscle.” Belgian Surgical Week, Abstracts. 2012. Print.
APA
WILLAERT, W., VAN DE PUTTE, D., VAN RENTERGHEM, K., Van Nieuwenhove, Y., Pattyn, P., & Ceelen, W. (2012). New insights into the innervation of the levator ani muscle. Belgian Surgical Week, Abstracts. Presented at the 13th Belgian Surgical Week.
Chicago author-date
WILLAERT, WOUTER, DIRK VAN DE PUTTE, KATRIEN VAN RENTERGHEM, Yves Van Nieuwenhove, Piet Pattyn, and Wim Ceelen. 2012. “New Insights into the Innervation of the Levator Ani Muscle.” In Belgian Surgical Week, Abstracts.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
WILLAERT, WOUTER, DIRK VAN DE PUTTE, KATRIEN VAN RENTERGHEM, Yves Van Nieuwenhove, Piet Pattyn, and Wim Ceelen. 2012. “New Insights into the Innervation of the Levator Ani Muscle.” In Belgian Surgical Week, Abstracts.
Vancouver
1.
WILLAERT W, VAN DE PUTTE D, VAN RENTERGHEM K, Van Nieuwenhove Y, Pattyn P, Ceelen W. New insights into the innervation of the levator ani muscle. Belgian Surgical Week, Abstracts. 2012.
IEEE
[1]
W. Willaert, D. Van de Putte, K. Van Renterghem, Y. Van Nieuwenhove, P. Pattyn, and W. Ceelen, “New insights into the innervation of the levator ani muscle,” in Belgian Surgical Week, Abstracts, Spa, Belgium, 2012.
@inproceedings{5866084,
  abstract     = {Introduction: There is still controversy about the innervation of the levator ani muscle (LAM). We investigated whether recent analysis yielded complete consensus among experts. 
Methods: An extensive search of the current literature was performed.
Results: In the past, the pudendal nerve (PN) was considered as the sole nerve innervating the LAM. However, several studies reported no contribution of the PN to the LAM innervation but emphasized the existence of the levator ani nerve (LAN) as a separate nerve branching directly from the sacral plexus and running on the superior surface of the pelvic floor to the LAM. This theory is in contrast with several cadaver studies which reported contributions of branches of the PN to the innervation of the LAM. A recent study in human foetuses confirms that the LAM has a dual somatic innervation in all cases but the contribution of the LAN to the innervation of the LAM is greater than that of the PN. The PN runs inferior to the pelvic floor muscles and its contributions to the innervation of the LAM are variable in both individuals and between both sides of the same pelvis. Furthermore, a communicating branch between the LAN and the PN was found in 56% of the specimens. Nevertheless, recently, authors confirm dual LAM innervation in 58.8% of cases but demonstrate exclusive LAM innervation from the PN or LAN in 23.5% and 5.9% of cases, respectively. 
Conclusion: Although studies confirm dual somatic innervation of the LAM exceptions in its neuronal supply exist.},
  author       = {Willaert, Wouter and Van de Putte, Dirk and Van Renterghem, Katrien and Van Nieuwenhove, Yves and Pattyn, Piet and Ceelen, Wim},
  booktitle    = {Belgian Surgical Week, Abstracts},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Spa, Belgium},
  title        = {New insights into the innervation of the levator ani muscle},
  year         = {2012},
}