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Towards a new European threshold to discriminate illegally administered from naturally occurring thiouracil in livestock

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Abstract
Thiouracil (TU) is a thyreostat with inhibitory effects on the thyroid function. Originally, it was designed for the treatment of hyperthyroidism, but due to secondary weight gain it may be alternatively applied in the fattening of livestock. Moreover, thyreostatic residues are known to be carcinogenic and teratogenic. As a result, thyreostats are strictly forbidden in the European Union. Any abuse is monitored and controlled by a ‘recommend concentration’ of 10 µg L-1 (2007). The latter threshold was established after identifying Brassicaceae species in the feed as an endogenous TU source, which could explain the frequently monitored low-level TU positive urine samples. However, this threshold resulted from experimental studies instead of epidemiologic data. Recently, two countries (France, Poland) have suggested a national epidemiologic threshold (urine). Accordingly, our study reports 95 and 99 % percentiles (8.1 and 18.2 µg L-1 for bovines (n = 3894); 7.4 and 13.5 µg L-1 for porcines (n = 654); 7.4 µg L-1 (95% only) for small livestock (n = 85)) including data from 6 European countries (France, Poland, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Norway, Belgium), taking into account the species (bovine, porcine, small livestock), the animals’ age (non-adults significantly higher levels for bovines) and gender (males significantly higher levels for bovines).

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Chicago
Wauters, Jella, Julie Vanden Bussche, Bruno Le Bizec, Gaud Dervilly-Pinel, Stephanie Prevost, Barbara Wozniak, Saskia Sterk, et al. 2014. “Towards a New European Threshold to Discriminate Illegally Administered from Naturally Occurring Thiouracil in Livestock.” In Hormone and Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis, 7th International Symposium, Abstracts, 48–48.
APA
Wauters, J., Vanden Bussche, J., Le Bizec, B., Dervilly-Pinel, G., Prevost, S., Wozniak, B., Sterk, S., et al. (2014). Towards a new European threshold to discriminate illegally administered from naturally occurring thiouracil in livestock. Hormone and Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis, 7th International symposium, Abstracts (pp. 48–48). Presented at the 7th International symposium on Hormone and Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis.
Vancouver
1.
Wauters J, Vanden Bussche J, Le Bizec B, Dervilly-Pinel G, Prevost S, Wozniak B, et al. Towards a new European threshold to discriminate illegally administered from naturally occurring thiouracil in livestock. Hormone and Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis, 7th International symposium, Abstracts. 2014. p. 48–48.
MLA
Wauters, Jella, Julie Vanden Bussche, Bruno Le Bizec, et al. “Towards a New European Threshold to Discriminate Illegally Administered from Naturally Occurring Thiouracil in Livestock.” Hormone and Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis, 7th International Symposium, Abstracts. 2014. 48–48. Print.
@inproceedings{5865254,
  abstract     = {Thiouracil (TU) is a thyreostat with inhibitory effects on the thyroid function. Originally, it was designed for the treatment of hyperthyroidism, but due to secondary weight gain it may be alternatively applied in the fattening of livestock. Moreover, thyreostatic residues are known to be carcinogenic and teratogenic. As a result, thyreostats are strictly forbidden in the European Union. Any abuse is monitored and controlled by a {\textquoteleft}recommend concentration{\textquoteright} of 10 {\textmu}g L-1 (2007). The latter threshold was established after identifying Brassicaceae species in the feed as an endogenous TU source, which could explain the frequently monitored low-level TU positive urine samples. However, this threshold resulted from experimental studies instead of epidemiologic data. Recently, two countries (France, Poland) have suggested a national epidemiologic threshold (urine). Accordingly, our study reports 95 and 99 \% percentiles (8.1 and 18.2 {\textmu}g L-1 for bovines (n = 3894); 7.4 and 13.5 {\textmu}g L-1 for porcines (n = 654); 7.4 {\textmu}g L-1 (95\% only) for small livestock (n = 85)) including data from 6 European countries (France, Poland, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, Norway, Belgium), taking into account the species (bovine, porcine, small livestock), the animals{\textquoteright} age (non-adults significantly higher levels for bovines) and gender (males significantly higher levels for bovines).},
  author       = {Wauters, Jella and Vanden Bussche, Julie and Le Bizec, Bruno and Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud and Prevost, Stephanie and Wozniak, Barbara and Sterk, Saskia and Gronningen, Dag and Kennedy, D Glenn and Russell, Sandra and Delahaut, Philippe and Vanhaecke, Lynn},
  booktitle    = {Hormone and Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis, 7th International symposium, Abstracts},
  language     = {eng},
  location     = {Ghent, Belgium},
  pages        = {48--48},
  title        = {Towards a new European threshold to discriminate illegally administered from naturally occurring thiouracil in livestock},
  year         = {2014},
}