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Toward a new European threshold to discriminate illegally administered from naturally occurring thiouracil in livestock

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Abstract
Thiouracil, 1 (Figure 1) is a thyrostat inhibiting the thyroid function, resulting in fraudulent weight gain if applied in the fattening of livestock. The latter abuse is strictly forbidden and monitored in the European Union. Recently, endogenous sources of thiouracil were identified after frequently monitoring low-level thiouracil positive urine samples and a ‘recommend concentration’ (RC) of 10 µg/L was suggested by the EURL to facilitate decision-making. However, the systematic occurrence of urine samples exceeding the RC, led to demands for international surveys defining an epidemiologic threshold. Therefore, six European Member States (France, Poland, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Norway and Belgium) have shared their official thiouracil data (2010-2012) collected from bovines, porcines and small livestock with 95 and 99 % percentiles of 8.1 and 18.2 µg/L for bovines (n = 3894); 7.4 and 13.5 µg/L for porcines (n = 654) and 7.4 µg/L (95% only) for small livestock (n = 85), respectively. Bovine percentiles decreased with the animal age (non-adults significantly higher levels for bovines) and higher levels were observed in male bovines compared to females.
Keywords
thiouracil, threshold, European, LC-MS/MS, endogenous, urine, MASS-SPECTROMETRY, RESIDUE, URINE, BOVINE, TANDEM

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Chicago
Wauters, Jella, Julie Vanden Bussche, Bruno Le Bizec, Julie Kiebooms, Gaud Dervilly-Pinel, Stéphanie Prevost, Barbara Wozniak, et al. 2015. “Toward a New European Threshold to Discriminate Illegally Administered from Naturally Occurring Thiouracil in Livestock.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 63 (5): 1339–1346.
APA
Wauters, J., Vanden Bussche, J., Le Bizec, B., Kiebooms, J., Dervilly-Pinel, G., Prevost, S., Wozniak, B., et al. (2015). Toward a new European threshold to discriminate illegally administered from naturally occurring thiouracil in livestock. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, 63(5), 1339–1346.
Vancouver
1.
Wauters J, Vanden Bussche J, Le Bizec B, Kiebooms J, Dervilly-Pinel G, Prevost S, et al. Toward a new European threshold to discriminate illegally administered from naturally occurring thiouracil in livestock. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY. 2015;63(5):1339–46.
MLA
Wauters, Jella, Julie Vanden Bussche, Bruno Le Bizec, et al. “Toward a New European Threshold to Discriminate Illegally Administered from Naturally Occurring Thiouracil in Livestock.” JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY 63.5 (2015): 1339–1346. Print.
@article{5865208,
  abstract     = {Thiouracil, 1 (Figure 1) is a thyrostat inhibiting the thyroid function, resulting in fraudulent weight gain if applied in the fattening of livestock. The latter abuse is strictly forbidden and monitored in the European Union. Recently, endogenous sources of thiouracil were identified after frequently monitoring low-level thiouracil positive urine samples and a {\textquoteleft}recommend concentration{\textquoteright} (RC) of 10 {\textmu}g/L was suggested by the EURL to facilitate decision-making. However, the systematic occurrence of urine samples exceeding the RC, led to demands for international surveys defining an epidemiologic threshold. Therefore, six European Member States (France, Poland, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Norway and Belgium) have shared their official thiouracil data (2010-2012) collected from bovines, porcines and small livestock with 95 and 99 \% percentiles of 8.1 and 18.2 {\textmu}g/L for bovines (n = 3894); 7.4 and 13.5 {\textmu}g/L for porcines (n = 654) and 7.4 {\textmu}g/L (95\% only) for small livestock (n = 85), respectively. Bovine percentiles decreased with the animal age (non-adults significantly higher levels for bovines) and higher levels were observed in male bovines compared to females.},
  author       = {Wauters, Jella and Vanden Bussche, Julie and Le Bizec, Bruno and Kiebooms, Julie and Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud and Prevost, St{\'e}phanie and Wozniak, Barbara and Sterk, Saskia S and Gr{\o}nningen, Dag and Kennedy, D Glenn and Russell, Sandra and Delahaut, Philippe and Vanhaecke, Lynn},
  issn         = {0021-8561},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {5},
  pages        = {1339--1346},
  title        = {Toward a new European threshold to discriminate illegally administered from naturally occurring thiouracil in livestock},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf504475f},
  volume       = {63},
  year         = {2015},
}

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