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Autochthonous tick-borne encephalitis virus-seropositive cattle in Belgium: a risk-based targeted serological survey

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Abstract
The risk of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) introduction into Belgium remains high, and the presence of infected wildlife in Belgium is suspected. Domestic animals can serve as excellent sentinels for TBEV surveillance to install an early warning surveillance component for this emerging zoonotic disease of public health importance. In a targeted, risk-based and cross-sectional sampling design, serological screening was performed on Belgian cattle (n = 650), selected from the 2010 Belgian national cattle surveillance serum bank. All samples were subjected to a gold standard TBEV seroneutralization test (SNT), based on the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) protocol. Seventeen bovines were seropositive (titer >1/15) and six had borderline results (1/10 < titer < 1/15). The accuracy of the RFFIT-SNT was confirmed in a mouse inoculation test. The overall bovine TBEV seroprevalence in the targeted area was estimated between 2.61% and 4.29%. This confirms for the first time the presence of infected foci in Belgium. Further surveillance in cattle, other sentinels, ticks, and humans at risk is recommended to further determine the location and size of endemic foci and the risk for public health.
Keywords
DOGS, ANIMALS, TBE, INFECTION, PREVALENCE, LYME BORRELIOSIS, NEUTRALIZING ANTIBODIES, TICKBORNE ENCEPHALITIS, RAW GOAT MILK, Endemic focus, Seroneutralization test (SNT), Rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT), Sentinel, Bovine, TBE(V), Cattle, Tick-borne encephalitis (virus), EUROPE

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Chicago
Roelandt, Sophie, Vanessa Suin, Flavien Riocreux, Sophie Lamoral, Sara Van der Heyden, Yves Van der Stede, Bénédicte Lambrecht, et al. 2014. “Autochthonous Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus-seropositive Cattle in Belgium: a Risk-based Targeted Serological Survey.” Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases 14 (9): 640–647.
APA
Roelandt, Sophie, Suin, V., Riocreux, F., Lamoral, S., Van der Heyden, S., Van der Stede, Y., Lambrecht, B., et al. (2014). Autochthonous tick-borne encephalitis virus-seropositive cattle in Belgium: a risk-based targeted serological survey. VECTOR-BORNE AND ZOONOTIC DISEASES, 14(9), 640–647.
Vancouver
1.
Roelandt S, Suin V, Riocreux F, Lamoral S, Van der Heyden S, Van der Stede Y, et al. Autochthonous tick-borne encephalitis virus-seropositive cattle in Belgium: a risk-based targeted serological survey. VECTOR-BORNE AND ZOONOTIC DISEASES. 2014;14(9):640–7.
MLA
Roelandt, Sophie, Vanessa Suin, Flavien Riocreux, et al. “Autochthonous Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus-seropositive Cattle in Belgium: a Risk-based Targeted Serological Survey.” VECTOR-BORNE AND ZOONOTIC DISEASES 14.9 (2014): 640–647. Print.
@article{5863197,
  abstract     = {The risk of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) introduction into Belgium remains high, and the presence of infected wildlife in Belgium is suspected. Domestic animals can serve as excellent sentinels for TBEV surveillance to install an early warning surveillance component for this emerging zoonotic disease of public health importance. In a targeted, risk-based and cross-sectional sampling design, serological screening was performed on Belgian cattle (n = 650), selected from the 2010 Belgian national cattle surveillance serum bank. All samples were subjected to a gold standard TBEV seroneutralization test (SNT), based on the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) protocol. Seventeen bovines were seropositive (titer {\textrangle}1/15) and six had borderline results (1/10 {\textlangle} titer {\textlangle} 1/15). The accuracy of the RFFIT-SNT was confirmed in a mouse inoculation test. The overall bovine TBEV seroprevalence in the targeted area was estimated between 2.61\% and 4.29\%. This confirms for the first time the presence of infected foci in Belgium. Further surveillance in cattle, other sentinels, ticks, and humans at risk is recommended to further determine the location and size of endemic foci and the risk for public health.},
  author       = {Roelandt, Sophie and Suin, Vanessa and Riocreux, Flavien and Lamoral, Sophie and Van der Heyden, Sara and Van der Stede, Yves and Lambrecht, B{\'e}n{\'e}dicte and Caij, Brigitte and Brochier, Bernard and Roels, Stefan and Van Gucht, Steven},
  issn         = {1530-3667},
  journal      = {VECTOR-BORNE AND ZOONOTIC DISEASES},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {9},
  pages        = {640--647},
  title        = {Autochthonous tick-borne encephalitis virus-seropositive cattle in Belgium: a risk-based targeted serological survey},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2014.1576},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2014},
}

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