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Protective effect of different anti-rabies virus VHH constructs against rabies disease in mice

(2014) PLOS ONE. 9(10).
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Abstract
Rabies virus causes lethal brain infection in about 61000 people per year. Each year, tens of thousands of people receive anti-rabies prophylaxis with plasma-derived immunoglobulins and vaccine soon after exposure. Anti-rabies immunoglobulins are however expensive and have limited availability. VHH are the smallest antigen-binding functional fragments of camelid heavy chain antibodies, also called Nanobodies. The therapeutic potential of anti-rabies VHH was examined in a mouse model using intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of rabies virus. Anti-rabies VHH were administered directly into the brain or systemically, by intraperitoneal injection, 24 hours after virus challenge. Anti-rabies VHH were able to significantly prolong survival or even completely rescue mice from disease. The therapeutic effect depended on the dose, affinity and brain and plasma half-life of the VHH construct. Increasing the affinity by combining two VHH with a glycine-serine linker into bivalent or biparatopic constructs, increased the neutralizing potency to the picomolar range. Upon direct intracerebral administration, a dose as low as 33 mu g of the biparatopic Rab-E8/H7 was still able to establish an anti-rabies effect. The effect of systemic treatment was significantly improved by increasing the half-life of Rab-E8/H7 through linkage with a third VHH targeted against albumin. Intraperitoneal treatment with 1.5 mg (2505 IU, 1 ml) of anti-albumin Rab-E8/H7 prolonged the median survival time from 9 to 15 days and completely rescued 43% of mice. For comparison, intraperitoneal treatment with the highest available dose of human anti-rabies immunoglobulins (65 mg, 111 IU, 1 ml) only prolonged survival by 2 days, without rescue. Overall, the therapeutic benefit seemed well correlated with the time of brain exposure and the plasma half-life of the used VHH construct. These results, together with the ease-of-production and superior thermal stability, render anti-rabies VHH into valuable candidates for development of alternative post exposure treatment drugs against rabies.
Keywords
NANOBODIES, IMMUNITY, PREVENTION, MECHANISMS, IMMUNIZATION, INFECTION, CVS STRAIN, MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODIES, CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM, DOMAIN ANTIBODY FRAGMENTS

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Chicago
Terryn, Sanne, Aurélie Francart, Sophie Lamoral, Anna Hultberg, Heidi Rommelaere, Angela Wittelsberger, Filip Callewaert, et al. 2014. “Protective Effect of Different Anti-rabies Virus VHH Constructs Against Rabies Disease in Mice.” Plos One 9 (10).
APA
Terryn, S., Francart, A., Lamoral, S., Hultberg, A., Rommelaere, H., Wittelsberger, A., Callewaert, F., et al. (2014). Protective effect of different anti-rabies virus VHH constructs against rabies disease in mice. PLOS ONE, 9(10).
Vancouver
1.
Terryn S, Francart A, Lamoral S, Hultberg A, Rommelaere H, Wittelsberger A, et al. Protective effect of different anti-rabies virus VHH constructs against rabies disease in mice. PLOS ONE. 2014;9(10).
MLA
Terryn, Sanne et al. “Protective Effect of Different Anti-rabies Virus VHH Constructs Against Rabies Disease in Mice.” PLOS ONE 9.10 (2014): n. pag. Print.
@article{5863084,
  abstract     = {Rabies virus causes lethal brain infection in about 61000 people per year. Each year, tens of thousands of people receive anti-rabies prophylaxis with plasma-derived immunoglobulins and vaccine soon after exposure. Anti-rabies immunoglobulins are however expensive and have limited availability. VHH are the smallest antigen-binding functional fragments of camelid heavy chain antibodies, also called Nanobodies. The therapeutic potential of anti-rabies VHH was examined in a mouse model using intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of rabies virus. Anti-rabies VHH were administered directly into the brain or systemically, by intraperitoneal injection, 24 hours after virus challenge. Anti-rabies VHH were able to significantly prolong survival or even completely rescue mice from disease. The therapeutic effect depended on the dose, affinity and brain and plasma half-life of the VHH construct. Increasing the affinity by combining two VHH with a glycine-serine linker into bivalent or biparatopic constructs, increased the neutralizing potency to the picomolar range. Upon direct intracerebral administration, a dose as low as 33 mu g of the biparatopic Rab-E8/H7 was still able to establish an anti-rabies effect. The effect of systemic treatment was significantly improved by increasing the half-life of Rab-E8/H7 through linkage with a third VHH targeted against albumin. Intraperitoneal treatment with 1.5 mg (2505 IU, 1 ml) of anti-albumin Rab-E8/H7 prolonged the median survival time from 9 to 15 days and completely rescued 43% of mice. For comparison, intraperitoneal treatment with the highest available dose of human anti-rabies immunoglobulins (65 mg, 111 IU, 1 ml) only prolonged survival by 2 days, without rescue. Overall, the therapeutic benefit seemed well correlated with the time of brain exposure and the plasma half-life of the used VHH construct. These results, together with the ease-of-production and superior thermal stability, render anti-rabies VHH into valuable candidates for development of alternative post exposure treatment drugs against rabies.},
  articleno    = {e109367},
  author       = {Terryn, Sanne and Francart, Aurélie and Lamoral, Sophie and Hultberg, Anna and Rommelaere, Heidi and Wittelsberger, Angela and Callewaert, Filip and Stohr, Thomas and Meerschaert, Kris and Ottevaere, Ingrid and Stortelers, Catelijne and Vanlandschoot, Peter and Kalai, Michael and Van Gucht, Steven},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  journal      = {PLOS ONE},
  keywords     = {NANOBODIES,IMMUNITY,PREVENTION,MECHANISMS,IMMUNIZATION,INFECTION,CVS STRAIN,MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODIES,CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM,DOMAIN ANTIBODY FRAGMENTS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {10},
  pages        = {12},
  title        = {Protective effect of different anti-rabies virus VHH constructs against rabies disease in mice},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109367},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2014},
}

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