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European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013

(2014) PLOS ONE. 9(12).
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Abstract
Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013) aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections.
Keywords
EVOLUTION, GERMANY, TRANSMISSION, GENETIC REASSORTMENT, H3N2, RT-PCR, UNITED-STATES, A VIRUS, UNIVERSAL PRIMER SET, PANDEMIC H1N1 2009

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Chicago
Simon, Gaëlle, Lars E Larsen, Ralf Dürrwald, Emanuela Foni, Timm Harder, Kristien Van Reeth, Iwona Markowska-Daniel, et al. 2014. “European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs: Surveillance Programs, Diagnostic Tools and Swine Influenza Virus Subtypes Identified in 14 European Countries from 2010 to 2013.” Plos One 9 (12).
APA
Simon, G., Larsen, L. E., Dürrwald, R., Foni, E., Harder, T., Van Reeth, K., Markowska-Daniel, I., et al. (2014). European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013. PLOS ONE, 9(12).
Vancouver
1.
Simon G, Larsen LE, Dürrwald R, Foni E, Harder T, Van Reeth K, et al. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013. PLOS ONE. 2014;9(12).
MLA
Simon, Gaëlle, Lars E Larsen, Ralf Dürrwald, et al. “European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs: Surveillance Programs, Diagnostic Tools and Swine Influenza Virus Subtypes Identified in 14 European Countries from 2010 to 2013.” PLOS ONE 9.12 (2014): n. pag. Print.
@article{5862502,
  abstract     = {Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013) aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31\% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6\%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13\%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1\%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3\%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9\% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections.},
  articleno    = {e115815},
  author       = {Simon, Ga{\"e}lle and Larsen, Lars E and D{\"u}rrwald, Ralf and Foni, Emanuela and Harder, Timm and Van Reeth, Kristien and Markowska-Daniel, Iwona and Reid, Scott M and Dan, Adam and Maldonado, Jaime and Huovilainen, Anita and Billinis, Charalambos and Davidson, Irit and Ag{\"u}ero, Montserrat and Vila, Tha{\"i}s and Herv{\'e}, S{\'e}verine and {\O}stergaard Breum, Solvej and Chiapponi, Chiara and Urbaniak, Kinga and Kyriakis, Constantinos S and Browne, Ian H and Loeffen, Willie},
  issn         = {1932-6203},
  journal      = {PLOS ONE},
  keyword      = {EVOLUTION,GERMANY,TRANSMISSION,GENETIC REASSORTMENT,H3N2,RT-PCR,UNITED-STATES,A VIRUS,UNIVERSAL PRIMER SET,PANDEMIC H1N1 2009},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {12},
  pages        = {21},
  title        = {European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115815},
  volume       = {9},
  year         = {2014},
}

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