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Complete genome characterization of recent and ancient Belgian pig group A rotaviruses and assessment of their evolutionary relationship with human rotaviruses

(2015) JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY. 89(2). p.1043-1057
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Abstract
Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are an important cause of diarrhea in young pigs and children. An evolutionary relationship has been suggested to exist between pig and human RVAs. This hypothesis was further investigated by phylogenetic analysis of the complete genomes of six recent (G2P[27], G3P[6], G4P[7], G5P[7], G9P[13], and G9P[23]) and one historic (G1P[7]) Belgian pig RVA strains and of all completely characterized pig RVAs from around the globe. In contrast to the large diversity of genotypes found for the outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7, a relatively conserved genotype constellation (15-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T7-E1-H1) was found for the other 9 genes in most pig RVA strains. VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP2, NSP4, and NSP5 genes of porcine RVAs belonged to genotype 1, which is shared with human Wa-like RVAs. However, for most of these gene segments, pig strains clustered distantly from human Wa-like RVAs, indicating that viruses from both species have entered different evolutionary paths. However, VP1, VP2, and NSP3 genes of some archival human strains were moderately related to pig strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP6, NSP1, and NSP3 genes, as well as amino acid analysis of the antigenic regions of VP7, further confirmed this evolutionary segregation. The present results also indicate that the species barrier is less strict for pig P[6] strains but that chances for successful spread of these strains in the human population are hampered by the better adaptation of pig RVAs to pig enterocytes. However, future surveillance of pig and human RVA strains is warranted. IMPORTANCE Rotaviruses are an important cause of diarrhea in many species, including pigs and humans. Our understanding of the evolutionary relationship between rotaviruses from both species is limited by the lack of genomic data on pig strains. In this study, recent and ancient Belgian pig rotavirus isolates were sequenced, and their evolutionary relationship with human Wa-like strains was investigated. Our data show that Wa-like human and pig strains have entered different evolutionary paths. Our data indicate that pig P[6] strains form the most considerable risk for interspecies transmission to humans. However, efficient spread of pig strains in the human population is most likely hampered by the adaptation of some crucial viral proteins to the cellular machinery of pig enterocytes. These data allow a better understanding of the risk for direct interspecies transmission events and the emergence of pig rotaviruses or pig-human reassortants in the human population.
Keywords
VP4 GENOTYPE, DIARRHEA, PORCINE ROTAVIRUS, BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS, STRAINS, HOST-RANGE, RNA SEGMENTS, MURINE ROTAVIRUS, PROTEIN NSP3, GENE CONSTELLATIONS

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MLA
Theuns, Sebastiaan et al. “Complete Genome Characterization of Recent and Ancient Belgian Pig Group A Rotaviruses and Assessment of Their Evolutionary Relationship with Human Rotaviruses.” JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY 89.2 (2015): 1043–1057. Print.
APA
Theuns, S., Heylen, E., Zeller, M., Roukaerts, I., Desmarets, L., Van Ranst, M., Nauwynck, H., et al. (2015). Complete genome characterization of recent and ancient Belgian pig group A rotaviruses and assessment of their evolutionary relationship with human rotaviruses. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, 89(2), 1043–1057.
Chicago author-date
Theuns, Sebastiaan, Elisabeth Heylen, Mark Zeller, Inge Roukaerts, Lowiese Desmarets, Marc Van Ranst, Hans Nauwynck, and Jelle Matthijnssens. 2015. “Complete Genome Characterization of Recent and Ancient Belgian Pig Group A Rotaviruses and Assessment of Their Evolutionary Relationship with Human Rotaviruses.” Journal of Virology 89 (2): 1043–1057.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Theuns, Sebastiaan, Elisabeth Heylen, Mark Zeller, Inge Roukaerts, Lowiese Desmarets, Marc Van Ranst, Hans Nauwynck, and Jelle Matthijnssens. 2015. “Complete Genome Characterization of Recent and Ancient Belgian Pig Group A Rotaviruses and Assessment of Their Evolutionary Relationship with Human Rotaviruses.” Journal of Virology 89 (2): 1043–1057.
Vancouver
1.
Theuns S, Heylen E, Zeller M, Roukaerts I, Desmarets L, Van Ranst M, et al. Complete genome characterization of recent and ancient Belgian pig group A rotaviruses and assessment of their evolutionary relationship with human rotaviruses. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY. 2015;89(2):1043–57.
IEEE
[1]
S. Theuns et al., “Complete genome characterization of recent and ancient Belgian pig group A rotaviruses and assessment of their evolutionary relationship with human rotaviruses,” JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 1043–1057, 2015.
@article{5861659,
  abstract     = {Group A rotaviruses (RVAs) are an important cause of diarrhea in young pigs and children. An evolutionary relationship has been suggested to exist between pig and human RVAs. This hypothesis was further investigated by phylogenetic analysis of the complete genomes of six recent (G2P[27], G3P[6], G4P[7], G5P[7], G9P[13], and G9P[23]) and one historic (G1P[7]) Belgian pig RVA strains and of all completely characterized pig RVAs from around the globe. In contrast to the large diversity of genotypes found for the outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7, a relatively conserved genotype constellation (15-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T7-E1-H1) was found for the other 9 genes in most pig RVA strains. VP1, VP2, VP3, NSP2, NSP4, and NSP5 genes of porcine RVAs belonged to genotype 1, which is shared with human Wa-like RVAs. However, for most of these gene segments, pig strains clustered distantly from human Wa-like RVAs, indicating that viruses from both species have entered different evolutionary paths. However, VP1, VP2, and NSP3 genes of some archival human strains were moderately related to pig strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP6, NSP1, and NSP3 genes, as well as amino acid analysis of the antigenic regions of VP7, further confirmed this evolutionary segregation. The present results also indicate that the species barrier is less strict for pig P[6] strains but that chances for successful spread of these strains in the human population are hampered by the better adaptation of pig RVAs to pig enterocytes. However, future surveillance of pig and human RVA strains is warranted.
IMPORTANCE Rotaviruses are an important cause of diarrhea in many species, including pigs and humans. Our understanding of the evolutionary relationship between rotaviruses from both species is limited by the lack of genomic data on pig strains. In this study, recent and ancient Belgian pig rotavirus isolates were sequenced, and their evolutionary relationship with human Wa-like strains was investigated. Our data show that Wa-like human and pig strains have entered different evolutionary paths. Our data indicate that pig P[6] strains form the most considerable risk for interspecies transmission to humans. However, efficient spread of pig strains in the human population is most likely hampered by the adaptation of some crucial viral proteins to the cellular machinery of pig enterocytes. These data allow a better understanding of the risk for direct interspecies transmission events and the emergence of pig rotaviruses or pig-human reassortants in the human population.},
  author       = {Theuns, Sebastiaan and Heylen, Elisabeth and Zeller, Mark and Roukaerts, Inge and Desmarets, Lowiese and Van Ranst, Marc and Nauwynck, Hans and Matthijnssens, Jelle},
  issn         = {0022-538X},
  journal      = {JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY},
  keywords     = {VP4 GENOTYPE,DIARRHEA,PORCINE ROTAVIRUS,BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS,STRAINS,HOST-RANGE,RNA SEGMENTS,MURINE ROTAVIRUS,PROTEIN NSP3,GENE CONSTELLATIONS},
  language     = {eng},
  number       = {2},
  pages        = {1043--1057},
  title        = {Complete genome characterization of recent and ancient Belgian pig group A rotaviruses and assessment of their evolutionary relationship with human rotaviruses},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02513-14},
  volume       = {89},
  year         = {2015},
}

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