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Dietary pattern analysis : a comparison between matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects

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Abstract
Background: Dietary pattern analysis, based on the concept that foods eaten together are as important as a reductive methodology characterized by a single food or nutrient analysis, has emerged as an alternative approach to study the relation between nutrition and disease. The aim of the present study was to compare nutritional intake and the results of dietary pattern analysis in properly matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects. Methods: Vegetarians (n = 69) were recruited via purposeful sampling and matched non-vegetarians (n = 69) with same age, gender, health and lifestyle characteristics were searched for via convenience sampling. Two dietary pattern analysis methods, the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) were calculated and analysed in function of the nutrient intake. Results: Mean total energy intake was comparable between vegetarians and omnivorous subjects (p > 0.05). Macronutrient analysis revealed significant differences between the mean values for vegetarians and omnivorous subjects (absolute and relative protein and total fat intake were significantly lower in vegetarians, while carbohydrate and fibre intakes were significantly higher in vegetarians than in omnivorous subjects). The HEI and MDS were significantly higher for the vegetarians (HEI = 53.8.1 +/- 11.2; MDS = 4.3 +/- 1.3) compared to the omnivorous subjects (HEI = 46.4 +/- 15.3; MDS = 3.8 +/- 1.4). Conclusions: Our results indicate a more nutrient dense pattern, closer to the current dietary recommendations for the vegetarians compared to the omnivorous subjects. Both indexing systems were able to discriminate between the vegetarians and the non-vegetarians with higher scores for the vegetarian subjects.
Keywords
HEALTHY EATING INDEX, Young Adult, MEDITERRANEAN DIET, NUTRITIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGY, RISK, QUALITY, GUIDELINES, ADHERENCE, FOOD

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MLA
Clarys, Peter, Peter Deriemaeker, Inge Huybrechts, et al. “Dietary Pattern Analysis : a Comparison Between Matched Vegetarian and Omnivorous Subjects.” NUTRITION JOURNAL 12 (2013): n. pag. Print.
APA
Clarys, P., Deriemaeker, P., Huybrechts, I., Hebbelinck, M., & Mullie, P. (2013). Dietary pattern analysis : a comparison between matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects. NUTRITION JOURNAL, 12.
Chicago author-date
Clarys, Peter, Peter Deriemaeker, Inge Huybrechts, Marcel Hebbelinck, and Patrick Mullie. 2013. “Dietary Pattern Analysis : a Comparison Between Matched Vegetarian and Omnivorous Subjects.” Nutrition Journal 12.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Clarys, Peter, Peter Deriemaeker, Inge Huybrechts, Marcel Hebbelinck, and Patrick Mullie. 2013. “Dietary Pattern Analysis : a Comparison Between Matched Vegetarian and Omnivorous Subjects.” Nutrition Journal 12.
Vancouver
1.
Clarys P, Deriemaeker P, Huybrechts I, Hebbelinck M, Mullie P. Dietary pattern analysis : a comparison between matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects. NUTRITION JOURNAL. 2013;12.
IEEE
[1]
P. Clarys, P. Deriemaeker, I. Huybrechts, M. Hebbelinck, and P. Mullie, “Dietary pattern analysis : a comparison between matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects,” NUTRITION JOURNAL, vol. 12, 2013.
@article{5853941,
  abstract     = {{Background: Dietary pattern analysis, based on the concept that foods eaten together are as important as a reductive methodology characterized by a single food or nutrient analysis, has emerged as an alternative approach to study the relation between nutrition and disease. The aim of the present study was to compare nutritional intake and the results of dietary pattern analysis in properly matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects. 
Methods: Vegetarians (n = 69) were recruited via purposeful sampling and matched non-vegetarians (n = 69) with same age, gender, health and lifestyle characteristics were searched for via convenience sampling. Two dietary pattern analysis methods, the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) were calculated and analysed in function of the nutrient intake. 
Results: Mean total energy intake was comparable between vegetarians and omnivorous subjects (p > 0.05). Macronutrient analysis revealed significant differences between the mean values for vegetarians and omnivorous subjects (absolute and relative protein and total fat intake were significantly lower in vegetarians, while carbohydrate and fibre intakes were significantly higher in vegetarians than in omnivorous subjects). The HEI and MDS were significantly higher for the vegetarians (HEI = 53.8.1 +/- 11.2; MDS = 4.3 +/- 1.3) compared to the omnivorous subjects (HEI = 46.4 +/- 15.3; MDS = 3.8 +/- 1.4). 
Conclusions: Our results indicate a more nutrient dense pattern, closer to the current dietary recommendations for the vegetarians compared to the omnivorous subjects. Both indexing systems were able to discriminate between the vegetarians and the non-vegetarians with higher scores for the vegetarian subjects.}},
  articleno    = {{82}},
  author       = {{Clarys, Peter and Deriemaeker, Peter and Huybrechts, Inge and Hebbelinck, Marcel and Mullie, Patrick}},
  issn         = {{1475-2891}},
  journal      = {{NUTRITION JOURNAL}},
  keywords     = {{HEALTHY EATING INDEX,Young Adult,MEDITERRANEAN DIET,NUTRITIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGY,RISK,QUALITY,GUIDELINES,ADHERENCE,FOOD}},
  language     = {{eng}},
  pages        = {{6}},
  title        = {{Dietary pattern analysis : a comparison between matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects}},
  url          = {{http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-12-82}},
  volume       = {{12}},
  year         = {{2013}},
}

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