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Dietary animal and plant protein intakes and their associations with obesity and cardio-metabolic indicators in European adolescents : the HELENA cross-sectional study

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Abstract
Background: Previous studies suggest that dietary protein might play a beneficial role in combating obesity and its related chronic diseases. Total, animal and plant protein intakes and their associations with anthropometry and serum biomarkers in European adolescents using one standardised methodology across European countries are not well documented. Objectives: To evaluate total, animal and plant protein intakes in European adolescents stratified by gender and age, and to investigate their associations with cardio-metabolic indicators (anthropometry and biomarkers). Methods: The current analysis included 1804 randomly selected adolescents participating in the HELENA study (conducted in 2006-2007) aged 12.5-17.5 y (47% males) who completed two non-consecutive computerised 24-h dietary recalls. Associations between animal and plant protein intakes, and anthropometry and serum biomarkers were examined with General linear Model multivariate analysis. Results: Average total protein intake exceeded the recommendations of World Health Organization and European Food Safety Authority. Mean total protein intake was 96 g/d (59% derived from animal protein). Total, animal and plant protein intakes (g/d) were significantly lower in females than in males and total and plant protein intakes were lower in younger participants (12.5-14.9 y). Protein intake was significantly lower in underweight subjects and higher in obese ones; the direction of the relationship was reversed after adjustments for body weight (g/(kg.d)). The inverse association of plant protein intakes was stronger with BMI z-score and body fat percentage (BF%) compared to animal protein intakes. Additionally, BMI and BF% were positively associated with energy percentage of animal protein. Conclusions: This sample of European adolescents appeared to have adequate total protein intake. Our findings suggest that plant protein intakes may play a role in preventing obesity among European adolescents. Further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the potential beneficial effects observed in this study in the prevention of obesity and related chronic diseases.
Keywords
Adolescence, Protein intake, Body composition, Biomarkers, HELENA study, NUTRITIONAL-STATUS, BODY-WEIGHT, CLINICAL-TRIAL, TREAT OBESITY, DISEASE RISK, ENERGY, CHILDREN, OVERWEIGHT, CHILDHOOD, FAT

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MLA
Lin, Yi et al. “Dietary Animal and Plant Protein Intakes and Their Associations with Obesity and Cardio-metabolic Indicators in European Adolescents : the HELENA Cross-sectional Study.” NUTRITION JOURNAL 14 (2015): n. pag. Print.
APA
Lin, Y., Mouratidou, T., Vereecken, C., Kersting, M., Bolca, S., de Moraes, A. C. F., Cuenca-García, M., et al. (2015). Dietary animal and plant protein intakes and their associations with obesity and cardio-metabolic indicators in European adolescents : the HELENA cross-sectional study. NUTRITION JOURNAL, 14.
Chicago author-date
Lin, Yi, Theodora Mouratidou, Carine Vereecken, Mathilde Kersting, Selin Bolca, Augusto César F de Moraes, Magdalena Cuenca-García, et al. 2015. “Dietary Animal and Plant Protein Intakes and Their Associations with Obesity and Cardio-metabolic Indicators in European Adolescents : the HELENA Cross-sectional Study.” Nutrition Journal 14.
Chicago author-date (all authors)
Lin, Yi, Theodora Mouratidou, Carine Vereecken, Mathilde Kersting, Selin Bolca, Augusto César F de Moraes, Magdalena Cuenca-García, Luis A Moreno, Marcela González-Gross, Jara Valtueña, Idoia Labayen, Evangelia Grammatikaki, Lena Hallstrom, Catherine Leclercq, Marika Ferrari, Frederic Gottrand, Laurent Beghin, Yannis Manios, Charlene Ottevaere, Herman Van Oyen, Denes Molnar, Anthony Kafatos, Kurt Widhalm, Sonia Gómez-Martinez, Ligia Esperanza Prieto, Stefaan De Henauw, and Inge Huybrechts. 2015. “Dietary Animal and Plant Protein Intakes and Their Associations with Obesity and Cardio-metabolic Indicators in European Adolescents : the HELENA Cross-sectional Study.” Nutrition Journal 14.
Vancouver
1.
Lin Y, Mouratidou T, Vereecken C, Kersting M, Bolca S, de Moraes ACF, et al. Dietary animal and plant protein intakes and their associations with obesity and cardio-metabolic indicators in European adolescents : the HELENA cross-sectional study. NUTRITION JOURNAL. 2015;14.
IEEE
[1]
Y. Lin et al., “Dietary animal and plant protein intakes and their associations with obesity and cardio-metabolic indicators in European adolescents : the HELENA cross-sectional study,” NUTRITION JOURNAL, vol. 14, 2015.
@article{5853329,
  abstract     = {Background: Previous studies suggest that dietary protein might play a beneficial role in combating obesity and its related chronic diseases. Total, animal and plant protein intakes and their associations with anthropometry and serum biomarkers in European adolescents using one standardised methodology across European countries are not well documented. 
Objectives: To evaluate total, animal and plant protein intakes in European adolescents stratified by gender and age, and to investigate their associations with cardio-metabolic indicators (anthropometry and biomarkers). 
Methods: The current analysis included 1804 randomly selected adolescents participating in the HELENA study (conducted in 2006-2007) aged 12.5-17.5 y (47% males) who completed two non-consecutive computerised 24-h dietary recalls. Associations between animal and plant protein intakes, and anthropometry and serum biomarkers were examined with General linear Model multivariate analysis. 
Results: Average total protein intake exceeded the recommendations of World Health Organization and European Food Safety Authority. Mean total protein intake was 96 g/d (59% derived from animal protein). Total, animal and plant protein intakes (g/d) were significantly lower in females than in males and total and plant protein intakes were lower in younger participants (12.5-14.9 y). Protein intake was significantly lower in underweight subjects and higher in obese ones; the direction of the relationship was reversed after adjustments for body weight (g/(kg.d)). The inverse association of plant protein intakes was stronger with BMI z-score and body fat percentage (BF%) compared to animal protein intakes. Additionally, BMI and BF% were positively associated with energy percentage of animal protein. 
Conclusions: This sample of European adolescents appeared to have adequate total protein intake. Our findings suggest that plant protein intakes may play a role in preventing obesity among European adolescents. Further longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the potential beneficial effects observed in this study in the prevention of obesity and related chronic diseases.},
  articleno    = {10},
  author       = {Lin, Yi and Mouratidou, Theodora and Vereecken, Carine and Kersting, Mathilde and Bolca, Selin and de Moraes, Augusto César F and Cuenca-García, Magdalena and Moreno, Luis A and González-Gross, Marcela and Valtueña, Jara and Labayen, Idoia and Grammatikaki, Evangelia and Hallstrom, Lena and Leclercq, Catherine and Ferrari, Marika and Gottrand, Frederic and Beghin, Laurent and Manios, Yannis and Ottevaere, Charlene and Van Oyen, Herman and Molnar, Denes and Kafatos, Anthony and Widhalm, Kurt and Gómez-Martinez, Sonia and Prieto, Ligia Esperanza and De Henauw, Stefaan and Huybrechts, Inge},
  issn         = {1475-2891},
  journal      = {NUTRITION JOURNAL},
  keywords     = {Adolescence,Protein intake,Body composition,Biomarkers,HELENA study,NUTRITIONAL-STATUS,BODY-WEIGHT,CLINICAL-TRIAL,TREAT OBESITY,DISEASE RISK,ENERGY,CHILDREN,OVERWEIGHT,CHILDHOOD,FAT},
  language     = {eng},
  pages        = {11},
  title        = {Dietary animal and plant protein intakes and their associations with obesity and cardio-metabolic indicators in European adolescents : the HELENA cross-sectional study},
  url          = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-14-10},
  volume       = {14},
  year         = {2015},
}

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